2 Standard 10 e. Students know why an individual with a compromised immune system (forexample, a person with AIDS) may be unable to fight off and survive infections by microorganisms that are usually benign.
3 What are Retroviruses Have RNA not DNA Infected cells , DNA copy of RNA to insert into the Host Cell’s DNALays dormant for long timeHIV is a retrovirusHarder to stop because can undergo more mutations.10
4 Basic facts about HIV/AIDS HIV is the virus that causes AIDSHIV/AIDS is treatable, but not curableApproximately 30,000 people in LA are living with HIVYou can’t tell by looking if a person is living with HIV, the only way to know is by taking an HIV antibody test.9
5 HIV attacks the body’s immune system The immune system recognizes and attacks pathogens and antigensHIV attacks and destroys T-cellsHIV replicates itself and attacks more T-cells to weaken the immune system so that it no longer functionsCompromised immune system – weakenedDo: Explain how the immune system works and how HIV attacks the immune system. Be sure to mention that HIV effects every cell and organ in the body, but that it uses white blood cells to replicate itself. Transition to the next slide.8
6 Blood Semen Breast Milk Vaginal Fluids The 4 Fluids These are the four fluids that transmit HIV. The key to protecting yourself from infection is to avoid these four bodily fluids.Do: Clarify that semen includes “pre-cum” and the ejaculation. Even if it does not come up, please point out that no other fluids transmit HIV.7
7 Transmitting HIVHIV is transmitted when one or more of the four fluids is transferred from one person to another. The most common ways HIV is transmitted is by:Unprotected oral, anal, or vaginal sexSharing needlesBreastfeeding from infected mother to baby6
8 What is HIV and AIDS all about? Caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)Compromises your immune systemKills white blood cells (Helpers T-Cells) and can lead to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)HIV contains 2 copies of RNA that penetrate a cell and hide for long time periods. In the infected cell, RNA is used to synthesize viral DNA.5
9 How do you ensure you will never catch HIV? 4Do: Explain what abstinence means. Point out that sex always carries risks and that condoms can only reduce the risks.ACTIVITY: Divide the group into small groups and have them brainstorm and create a list of activities that a couple could do together that would not put them at risk for HIV. Hints: The list could include things like cuddling, holding hands, phone sex, etc.Goal: To allow participants to think about fun activities they could do with their partner that would not put them at risk for HIV. This list provides participants with real alternatives when they are presented with a risky situation in the future.Abstaining from sex means not participating in sex at all. Abstinence is the only way to ensure that you will never contract HIV. Condoms reduce the risk for HIV, but they do not eliminate the risks altogether.
10 How HIV causes AIDSHIV invades immune system cells especially helper T cells.These helper T cells have a vital role in the immune system.When a helper T cell is activated (by having an antigen presented to it, it begins to divide into memory T cells and effector T cells.3
11 Memory T cells Memory T cells do not fight against the virus. Instead they are long-lived and can generate an immune response quickly if the same foreign protein is encountered again.2
12 Why is HIV hard to treat? Viral disguise Virus mutates and changing the proteins on its outer surfaceThese new surface proteins are not recognized by the immune system’s memory cells.Mutant virus particles with new surface proteins survive immune system attacks and begin a new round of infection1
13 Why is HIV hard to treat? Viral disguise Each round of infection reduces numbers of helper T cells because they are infected and destroyed.Each lineage of T cells has a limited ability to replicate, after a finite number of rounds of replication the body’s supply of helper T cells becomes exhausted. The immune system eventually is overwhelmed and collapses.
15 What is the difference between HIV and AIDS? A HIV is a virus that affects the immune system; AIDS describes a deficient immune system. B HIV is a virus that affects the immune system; AIDS is a bacterium that affects the immune system. C HIV is a virus that affects the immune system; AIDS is a virus that affects the whole body. D HIV is a disease that can be cured; AIDS is a disease that has no known cure.
16 Tuberculosis, meningitis, and hepatitis C are all diseases that are more common in people with HIV or AIDS. This is most likely because healthy people without HIV or AIDS __________.A can better fight off disease causing agents B are not able to contract these diseases C have a compromised immune system D have been vaccinated against such diseases
17 How does the HIV virus cripple the immune system? A . destroys T–cellsB. increases T–cellsC. destroys H–cellsD. increases B–cells
18 When macrophages and helper T cells start producing particles of HIV, __________. the person will be immune to AIDSBthe virus is spreadingChelper T cells are being destroyedDBoth B and C
19 A person that cannot fight off and survive infections by microorganisms that are usually harmless is said to have which of the following?Aa healthy immune systemBan increase in the amount of antibodies in the bodyCan increase in the amount of macrophages in the bodyDa compromised immune system
20 A person with an immune system compromised by a virus is unable to fight off infections because __________.Acells are not able to stop multiplyingBcells stop producing antigensCkiller T–cells destroy healthy body cellsDhelper T–cells are being destroyed by the virus
21 Which of the following systems does HIV destroy? AcirculatoryBskeletalCnervousDimmune