Oceanography Water vapor source; hydrological cycle, latent heat, severe weather Energy exchange w/ atmosphere, ~thermostat Poleward energy transport
Major Ocean Currents
Upwelling Also happens off Peru
El Niño and La Niña How does El Niño affect global weather patterns? Western Pacific experiences less rainfall as warm water moves east. This shift in rain patterns moves the subtropical jet stream from its normal path. This change in the path of the sub-tropical Jet allows El Niño to affect the weather and climate of the mid-latitudes as well as the tropics. The commodities markets use the NOAA El Niño forecasts to influence their buying and selling.
Tropical Cyclones Hurricanes/Typhoons/Cyclones Formation: some disturbance gets ‘spun up’ drawing energy from warm ocean waters (T>25 o C) Over 61km/hr, tropical storm, named; over 119km/hr, hurricane Bands of rising moist air vs. cool, sinking air; particularly in center “eye” Storm surge, inland flooding, winds Weaken with cool water, land, or unfavorable airflow aloft