3Causes of Disease Inherited Diseases – GENETIC Down’s Syndrome Cystic FibrosisSickle Cell AnemiaExposure to Toxins – POISONSLead PoisoningRadiation Poisoning
4Poor Nutrition-. Scurvy (Lack of Vitamin C) Poor Nutrition- Scurvy (Lack of Vitamin C) Goiter (Low Iodine) Organ Malfunction – Heart Attack Stroke (Brain) Diabetes (Pancreas)
5High Risk behaviors-Lung Cancer (Smoking)Skin Cancer (Tanning)AIDS (Drug Addiction/SexualActivity)
6PATHOGENS – Organisms that interfere with NORMAL functions of the body; they disrupt homeostasis VIRUSESSmall, non-living “particles” of genetic material that invade living cellsChicken PoxHIVMeaslesInfluenzaVirus injecting its DNA into a cell
7Bacterium (Bacteria is plural) Bacteria- Single- celled organismsStrep ThroatSyphilisFood PoisoningBacilli bacteria being surrounded by White Blood Cells
8Fungus (Fungi is plural) Fungi can be unicellular (1 cell) or multicellular (Many cells)RingwormAthlete’s FootRingworm is a skin infection caused by a fungus. Ringworm can affect skin on your body (tinea corporis), scalp (tinea capitis), groin area (tinea cruris, also called jock itch), or feet (tinea pedis, also called athlete's foot).Often, there are several patches of ringworm on your skin at once.
9Parasites – Single-celled or multicellular organisms that feed off of living things causing them harmMalaria (Caused by a protist called Plasmodium)LeechesTapewormsHeartwormsMalaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by protists (a type of microorganism) of the genus Plasmodium. It begins with a bite from an infected female mosquito, which introduces the protists via its saliva into the circulatory system, and ultimately to the liver where they mature and reproduce.
10CANCER- Group of diseases CANCER is caused by genetic changes that can occur within the cells of a tissue or organ resulting in uncontrolled cell growthLIVER CANCER on the rightLUNG CANCER on the right
11The Immune System….Humans have many ways to protect themselves from danger and disease…..* Our SENSES (eyes, ears, sense of smell) can help detect danger* We can release HORMONES (Adrenaline) to help our MUSCLES respond to danger (FIGHT OR FLIGHT)
12SKINBODY FLUIDS* Unbroken SKIN keeps out foreign organisms that could be HARMFUL * The skin acts as a barrier, blocking pathogens much like a wall around a Castle protects against invaders.Fluids in the body such as * TEARS * SALIVA * OTHER BODY SECRETIONS, like Sweat, trap and destroy invaders
13The NERVOUS system provides rapid coordination of our body to danger. * Senses (Detect Danger)* Nerves in Muscles (Respond to Danger)* Signals to Endocrine Glands (Secrete Hormones)
14The human body needs an effective way to…. COMBAT or FIGHT OFF invaders or body cells that malfunction.The IMMUNE SYSTEM is the body’s primary defense against DISEASE-CAUSING PATHOGENS.
15Foreign substances that threaten HOMEOSTASIS can usually be identified by molecules on their outer surfaces. These molecules are called ANTIGENS, and they trigger (start) a response from the Immune System.
16Antigen-Antibody Diagram The body will make ANTIBODIES to fight off the ANTIGENS. The antibodies are SPECIFIC to the SHAPE of the antigen and will FIT in to deactivate the antigen.
17How WBC’s Fight Pathogens White Blood Cells canENGULF PATHOGENSWhite Blood Cells can MAKE ANTIBODIES TO DESTROY ANTIGENSThe WBC is making ANTIBODIES that can attack the invader or mark them for KILLINGWBC’s SURROUND the bacteria and then “eat” it by releasing digestive enzymes which kill the bacteria.How WBC’s Fight Pathogens
18Some specialized WHITE BLOOD CELLS will remain in the body long after the pathogen is gone. These “Memory” cells will divide QUICKLY and produce more antibodies if they come in contact with that pathogen again.ANTIBODIES are effective against microbes (microscopic organisms) that appear YEARS later.
19VaccinationsScientists have discovered that weakened MICROBES can stimulate (start) the Immune System to REACT (respond).Vaccines are made by using WEAKENED, Killed (dead), or Parts of MICROBES.When vaccines are injected into the BODY, the Immune System responds just as if it were invaded by a LIVE pathogen and will produce ANTIBODIES.
20After a vaccination, the Immune System…. REMEMBERS the specific pathogen by leaving behind special WHITE BLOOD CELLS that will protect the body for years!
21Making a Vaccine Obtain the PATHOGEN Treat pathogen to KILL or WEAKEN itInject the pathogen (VACCINE) into the organismThe body responds by making ANTIBODIES and having the WBC’s ATTACK the invaderSome WBC’s SPECIFIC for this pathogen remain in the body for a long time to continue PROTECTION from future attacks.
22DAMAGE/PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE IMMUNE RESPONSE The immune system may weaken with AGE or other factors like STRESS, fatigue. This can make us more VULNERABLE to disease.Some viral diseases like AIDS result from an attack on the IMMUNE system. The damage leaves the person UNABLE to deal with infections and CANCEROUS cells.
23A WEAKENED immune system is one reason people with AIDS die of INFECTIONS that a healthy person could fight off.
24ALLERGIESAn ALLERGY is a rapid immune response to substances that are usually harmless.Certain FOODS, pollen, and chemicals from INSECT bites are examples of things that can cause an allergic reaction.In an allergy, the body releases chemicals called HISTAMINES which can lead to a RUNNY nose, SNEEZING, rashes, and SWELLING.
25People with allergies often use… ANTI-HISTAMINES to reduce their symptoms.
26AUTOIMMUNE DISEASESometimes the immune system malfunctions and fails to recognize “SELF” molecules and attacks the body’s own cells.LupusRheumatoid ArthritisJuvenile Onset Diabetes
27ORGAN TRANSPLANTSSince a transplanted organ comes from ANOTHER person, the immune system recognizes it as an INVADER and may start to attack the new organ.To avoid REJECTION, transplant patients receive special drugs to suppress their IMMUNE system. This may leave the patient ILL from a pathogen that would normally be no threat.