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6th Grade UBD - Unit 5 - China's Reunification and Development.

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Presentation on theme: "6th Grade UBD - Unit 5 - China's Reunification and Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 6th Grade UBD - Unit 5 - China's Reunification and Development

2  Fall of the Han Dynasty- The lack of a strong emperor allowed internal fighting to weaken the central government, making it vulnerable.  A New Era of Imperial China- China was reunified under the Sui and Tang dynasties. The achievements of that era were carried into the Song dynasty.  The Return of Confucianism- Confucianism was restored to official government use during the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties.

3  Trade was an important part of life during China’s reunification and in today’s modern world. What are some things that we get from China today. (5 minutes)

4  Work with a neighbor and compare your answer with theirs. What things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)

5 Key Term China- China is the world’s most populous nation. It holds one- fifth of Earth’s people—or about 1.3 billion individuals. In total area it is the fourth largest nation, slightly smaller than the United States.

6  The weakness of Emperor Xian allowed greedy court officials to take power for themselves.  Power struggles between the officials, clans of the empress, and court servants weakened China.  The ideals of Daoism spread throughout the Chinese peasants, inspiring them to revolt.  Powerful warlords took control and divided China into the Three Kingdoms.  The Wei and Jin dynasties attempted to reunify China, but they both failed.

7  The Han Dynasty ruled China from approximately 206 BCE– 220 CE.  Many historians view this era as an important and prosperous period in Chinese culture and history.  Even today, the Chinese people refer to themselves as “the people of Han.”

8 Key Term Han- China’s predominant ethnic group. More than 90 percent of Chinese today are Han.

9  The last ruler of the Han Dynasty was Emperor Xiandi, who reigned until 220, when he was forced to abdicate, or give up, the throne.  Under his reign, court officials became corrupt and worked for their own gain instead of the good of China.

10 Key Term Dynasty- A family of rulers who rule over a country for a long period of time.

11  Local military leaders controlled small regions of the Han empire, and civil wars between these regions were common.

12 Key Term Civil War- A war between citizens of the same country.

13  With the central government weakened, ambitious generals and warlords took advantage of the power vacuum to try to seize control of China.  The result was constant, brutal war that cost many thousands of lives.

14  Over the next three centuries, three kingdoms emerged as the most powerful: the Wei, Wu, and Shu-Han.  These kingdoms competed for dominance until the rise of the Jin dynasty in 265.

15  Yet even under the Jin, China remained unstable; it would not be until the rise of the Sui dynasty in the 580s that China would be unified at last.

16  Painting, ceramic sculpture, and literature reached a golden age in the Tang and Song dynasties.  The Grand Canal made trade and travel easier within China.  The Silk Road, which allowed trade with the West, reached its peak during the Tang dynasty.

17  Emperor Wendi, the man who would finally reunite China, was not entirely Chinese.  He was also partly Mongolian, the country to the north of China.

18  Under the Sui, the government repaired the Great Wall, began construction on the Great Canal, stabilized the nation, and made social and economic reforms.

19  Confucian rituals were once again used in government.  Laws, land distribution systems, and taxes were simplified and made fairer.

20  A careful census, or counting of the population, was taken to learn how many people were living in China.  Networks of administrators who would make local laws consistent and fair were established.

21 Key Term Census- The procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.

22  The Sui dynasty was also the beginning of a golden age of art and culture.  Many large and beautiful stone Buddha statues throughout China were constructed during the Sui era.

23  The Sui dynasty did not last long, however, and in the year 618 the Tang dynasty arose to take its place.

24  The Tang established a long-lasting stable central government.  The government encouraged economic growth and trade, completing the Great Canal and adopting foreign influences.

25  The Chinese made important advances in military technology.  Gunpowder was discovered during the Song dynasty.  The Chinese were the first used in fireworks.

26  The crossbow was another important invention of the time.  A bow and arrow depended on the strength of the bowman.  However, the crossbow could be fired by using a trigger. This made the weapon easier to use.

27 Video- The Crossbow

28  The Song dynasty was a time of inventions and ideas.  During the Song dynasty, they began to make paper money.  The money helped to make currency, or money, the same across the empire.

29  There were also great new scientific ideas during the Song dynasty.  One of the most important was the first mechanical clock. It was driven by water.  It would serve as the base for future mechanical clocks.

30 Reading Handout- The Silk Road

31 Video- Story of the Silk Road

32 Key Term Silk Road- A system of caravan tracts that connected ancient China to civilizations to the west.

33  Silk was China’s most important export during the Song dynasty.  It is strong, soft, lightweight, and radiant.  Silk has been thought of as a luxury for centuries.  Silk was mainly used by royalty.

34  The Silk Road connected people and cultures, allowing for the exchange of goods and ideas among many civilizations of the ancient world.

35  The Silk Road was not one continuous road; rather, it was a series of trade routes that connected China both directly and indirectly to trade markets in South and East Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, and Europe.

36  For hundreds of years China was the only country that produced silk because the process of making silk was a carefully guarded secret.  Exporting silkworm eggs was a crime.

37  After a while, silk production spread throughout Europe and the Middle East.  China was no longer the only country producing silk.  However, the high quality and beauty of Chinese silk still made it very popular.

38  Travelers along the Silk Road were protected by the Great Wall of China. It was first built to keep out invaders from the north.  Open trade with the West brought great wealth and new ideas to both regions.

39 Reading Handout-The Great Wall

40 Video- The Great Wall of China

41  In the 1200s, Italian explorer Marco Polo visited China.  He brought Chinese culture back to Europe.  Chinese ideas spread to the West. This increased the wealth and mixture of ideas in Chinese culture.

42 Key Term Marco Polo- An Italian explorer who visited China and brought Chinese culture back to Europe.

43 Video- Marco Polo

44  Confucianism may be considered a religion, a philosophy, an ethical way of life, or even a tradition of learning. For more than 2,000 years, it has permeated Chinese culture and thinking, and it continues to do so today.  Neo-Confucianism helped to strengthen and organize the government.

45  Among Confucianism most basic teachings are deep respect for ancestors, parents, and elders; the importance of polite behavior; and concern for other humans.

46 Key Term Confucianism- An ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius.

47  During the Han dynasty, the Emperor Wudi made Confucianism the state philosophy of China.

48  The Song also established Neo- Confucianism, which developed from a blend of Confucian, Buddhist, and Daoist influences, as the state religion.

49  Under this system, government positions went to the qualified individuals who passed a civil service exam rather than being passed down through family lines.

50  In order to become a civil servant, people had to take tests.  The better they did on the tests, the higher position they could get in the civil service.  The examinations were very difficult.

51  Many people would study at the imperial university or under tutors for years in order to pass the tests.  A lot of the tests covered the philosophy of Confucius and required lots of memorization.  Other subjects included the military, mathematics, geography, and calligraphy.

52  What has been the “muddiest” point so far in this lesson? That is, what topic remains the least clear to you? (4 minutes)

53  Work with a neighbor and compare your muddiest point with theirs. Compare what things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)

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