Presentation on theme: "6th Grade UBD - Unit 5 - China's Reunification and Development."— Presentation transcript:
6th Grade UBD - Unit 5 - China's Reunification and Development
Fall of the Han Dynasty- The lack of a strong emperor allowed internal fighting to weaken the central government, making it vulnerable. A New Era of Imperial China- China was reunified under the Sui and Tang dynasties. The achievements of that era were carried into the Song dynasty. The Return of Confucianism- Confucianism was restored to official government use during the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties.
Trade was an important part of life during China’s reunification and in today’s modern world. What are some things that we get from China today. (5 minutes)
Work with a neighbor and compare your answer with theirs. What things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)
Key Term China- China is the world’s most populous nation. It holds one- fifth of Earth’s people—or about 1.3 billion individuals. In total area it is the fourth largest nation, slightly smaller than the United States.
The weakness of Emperor Xian allowed greedy court officials to take power for themselves. Power struggles between the officials, clans of the empress, and court servants weakened China. The ideals of Daoism spread throughout the Chinese peasants, inspiring them to revolt. Powerful warlords took control and divided China into the Three Kingdoms. The Wei and Jin dynasties attempted to reunify China, but they both failed.
The Han Dynasty ruled China from approximately 206 BCE– 220 CE. Many historians view this era as an important and prosperous period in Chinese culture and history. Even today, the Chinese people refer to themselves as “the people of Han.”
Key Term Han- China’s predominant ethnic group. More than 90 percent of Chinese today are Han.
The last ruler of the Han Dynasty was Emperor Xiandi, who reigned until 220, when he was forced to abdicate, or give up, the throne. Under his reign, court officials became corrupt and worked for their own gain instead of the good of China.
Key Term Dynasty- A family of rulers who rule over a country for a long period of time.
Local military leaders controlled small regions of the Han empire, and civil wars between these regions were common.
Key Term Civil War- A war between citizens of the same country.
With the central government weakened, ambitious generals and warlords took advantage of the power vacuum to try to seize control of China. The result was constant, brutal war that cost many thousands of lives.
Over the next three centuries, three kingdoms emerged as the most powerful: the Wei, Wu, and Shu-Han. These kingdoms competed for dominance until the rise of the Jin dynasty in 265.
Yet even under the Jin, China remained unstable; it would not be until the rise of the Sui dynasty in the 580s that China would be unified at last.
Painting, ceramic sculpture, and literature reached a golden age in the Tang and Song dynasties. The Grand Canal made trade and travel easier within China. The Silk Road, which allowed trade with the West, reached its peak during the Tang dynasty.
Emperor Wendi, the man who would finally reunite China, was not entirely Chinese. He was also partly Mongolian, the country to the north of China.
Under the Sui, the government repaired the Great Wall, began construction on the Great Canal, stabilized the nation, and made social and economic reforms.
Confucian rituals were once again used in government. Laws, land distribution systems, and taxes were simplified and made fairer.
A careful census, or counting of the population, was taken to learn how many people were living in China. Networks of administrators who would make local laws consistent and fair were established.
Key Term Census- The procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
The Sui dynasty was also the beginning of a golden age of art and culture. Many large and beautiful stone Buddha statues throughout China were constructed during the Sui era.
The Sui dynasty did not last long, however, and in the year 618 the Tang dynasty arose to take its place.
The Tang established a long-lasting stable central government. The government encouraged economic growth and trade, completing the Great Canal and adopting foreign influences.
The Chinese made important advances in military technology. Gunpowder was discovered during the Song dynasty. The Chinese were the first used in fireworks.
The crossbow was another important invention of the time. A bow and arrow depended on the strength of the bowman. However, the crossbow could be fired by using a trigger. This made the weapon easier to use.
Video- The Crossbow
The Song dynasty was a time of inventions and ideas. During the Song dynasty, they began to make paper money. The money helped to make currency, or money, the same across the empire.
There were also great new scientific ideas during the Song dynasty. One of the most important was the first mechanical clock. It was driven by water. It would serve as the base for future mechanical clocks.
Reading Handout- The Silk Road
Video- Story of the Silk Road
Key Term Silk Road- A system of caravan tracts that connected ancient China to civilizations to the west.
Silk was China’s most important export during the Song dynasty. It is strong, soft, lightweight, and radiant. Silk has been thought of as a luxury for centuries. Silk was mainly used by royalty.
The Silk Road connected people and cultures, allowing for the exchange of goods and ideas among many civilizations of the ancient world.
The Silk Road was not one continuous road; rather, it was a series of trade routes that connected China both directly and indirectly to trade markets in South and East Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, and Europe.
For hundreds of years China was the only country that produced silk because the process of making silk was a carefully guarded secret. Exporting silkworm eggs was a crime.
After a while, silk production spread throughout Europe and the Middle East. China was no longer the only country producing silk. However, the high quality and beauty of Chinese silk still made it very popular.
Travelers along the Silk Road were protected by the Great Wall of China. It was first built to keep out invaders from the north. Open trade with the West brought great wealth and new ideas to both regions.
Reading Handout-The Great Wall
Video- The Great Wall of China
In the 1200s, Italian explorer Marco Polo visited China. He brought Chinese culture back to Europe. Chinese ideas spread to the West. This increased the wealth and mixture of ideas in Chinese culture.
Key Term Marco Polo- An Italian explorer who visited China and brought Chinese culture back to Europe.
Video- Marco Polo
Confucianism may be considered a religion, a philosophy, an ethical way of life, or even a tradition of learning. For more than 2,000 years, it has permeated Chinese culture and thinking, and it continues to do so today. Neo-Confucianism helped to strengthen and organize the government.
Among Confucianism most basic teachings are deep respect for ancestors, parents, and elders; the importance of polite behavior; and concern for other humans.
Key Term Confucianism- An ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius.
During the Han dynasty, the Emperor Wudi made Confucianism the state philosophy of China.
The Song also established Neo- Confucianism, which developed from a blend of Confucian, Buddhist, and Daoist influences, as the state religion.
Under this system, government positions went to the qualified individuals who passed a civil service exam rather than being passed down through family lines.
In order to become a civil servant, people had to take tests. The better they did on the tests, the higher position they could get in the civil service. The examinations were very difficult.
Many people would study at the imperial university or under tutors for years in order to pass the tests. A lot of the tests covered the philosophy of Confucius and required lots of memorization. Other subjects included the military, mathematics, geography, and calligraphy.
What has been the “muddiest” point so far in this lesson? That is, what topic remains the least clear to you? (4 minutes)
Work with a neighbor and compare your muddiest point with theirs. Compare what things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)