Presentation on theme: "China's Reunification and Development"— Presentation transcript:
1China's Reunification and Development 6th Grade UBD - Unit 5 - China's Reunification and DevelopmentChina's Reunification and Development
2PreviewFall of the Han Dynasty- The lack of a strong emperor allowed internal fighting to weaken the central government, making it vulnerable.A New Era of Imperial China- China was reunified under the Sui and Tang dynasties. The achievements of that era were carried into the Song dynasty.The Return of Confucianism- Confucianism was restored to official government use during the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties.
3Reach Into Your Background Trade was an important part of life during China’s reunification and in today’s modern world. What are some things that we get from China today. (5 minutes)
4Partner ActivityWork with a neighbor and compare your answer with theirs. What things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)
5Key TermChina- China is the world’s most populous nation. It holds one-fifth of Earth’s people—or about 1.3 billion individuals. In total area it is the fourth largest nation, slightly smaller than the United States.
6Key Ideas- Fall of the Han Dynasty The weakness of Emperor Xian allowed greedy court officials to take power for themselves.Power struggles between the officials, clans of the empress, and court servants weakened China.The ideals of Daoism spread throughout the Chinese peasants, inspiring them to revolt.Powerful warlords took control and divided China into the Three Kingdoms.The Wei and Jin dynasties attempted to reunify China, but they both failed.
7The Han DynastyThe Han Dynasty ruled China from approximately 206 BCE–220 CE.Many historians view this era as an important and prosperous period in Chinese culture and history.Even today, the Chinese people refer to themselves as “the people of Han.”
8Key TermHan- China’s predominant ethnic group. More than 90 percent of Chinese today are Han.
9The Han DynastyThe last ruler of the Han Dynasty was Emperor Xiandi, who reigned until 220, when he was forced to abdicate, or give up, the throne.Under his reign, court officials became corrupt and worked for their own gain instead of the good of China.
10Key TermDynasty- A family of rulers who rule over a country for a long period of time.
11The Han DynastyLocal military leaders controlled small regions of the Han empire, and civil wars between these regions were common.
12Key TermCivil War- A war between citizens of the same country.
13The Three KingdomsWith the central government weakened, ambitious generals and warlords took advantage of the power vacuum to try to seize control of China.The result was constant, brutal war that cost many thousands of lives.
14The Three KingdomsOver the next three centuries, three kingdoms emerged as the most powerful: the Wei, Wu, and Shu-Han.These kingdoms competed for dominance until the rise of the Jin dynasty in 265.
15The Sui DynastyYet even under the Jin, China remained unstable; it would not be until the rise of the Sui dynasty in the 580s that China would be unified at last.
16Key Ideas- A New Era of Imperial China Painting, ceramic sculpture, and literature reached a golden age in the Tang and Song dynasties.The Grand Canal made trade and travel easier within China.The Silk Road, which allowed trade with the West, reached its peak during the Tang dynasty.
17The Sui DynastyEmperor Wendi, the man who would finally reunite China, was not entirely Chinese.He was also partly Mongolian, the country to the north of China.
18Life During the Sui Dynasty Under the Sui, the government repaired the Great Wall, began construction on the Great Canal, stabilized the nation, and made social and economic reforms.
19Life During the Sui Dynasty Confucian rituals were once again used in government.Laws, land distribution systems, and taxes were simplified and made fairer.
20Life During the Sui Dynasty A careful census, or counting of the population, was taken to learn how many people were living in China.Networks of administrators who would make local laws consistent and fair were established.
21Key TermCensus- The procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
22Life During the Sui Dynasty The Sui dynasty was also the beginning of a golden age of art and culture.Many large and beautiful stone Buddha statues throughout China were constructed during the Sui era.
23Life During the Sui Dynasty The Sui dynasty did not last long, however, and in the year 618 the Tang dynasty arose to take its place.
24The Tang DynastyThe Tang established a long-lasting stable central government.The government encouraged economic growth and trade, completing the Great Canal and adopting foreign influences.
25War The Chinese made important advances in military technology. Gunpowder was discovered during the Song dynasty.The Chinese were the first used in fireworks.
26War The crossbow was another important invention of the time. A bow and arrow depended on the strength of the bowman.However, the crossbow could be fired by using a trigger. This made the weapon easier to use.
28Art The Song dynasty was a time of inventions and ideas. During the Song dynasty, they began to make paper money.The money helped to make currency, or money, the same across the empire.
29ArtThere were also great new scientific ideas during the Song dynasty.One of the most important was the first mechanical clock. It was driven by water.It would serve as the base for future mechanical clocks.
31Story of the Silk RoadVideo- Story of the Silk Road
32Key TermSilk Road- A system of caravan tracts that connected ancient China to civilizations to the west.
33Silk and the Silk RoadSilk was China’s most important export during the Song dynasty.It is strong, soft, lightweight, and radiant.Silk has been thought of as a luxury for centuries.Silk was mainly used by royalty.
34The Silk Road The Silk Road connected people and cultures, allowing for the exchange of goods and ideas among many civilizations of the ancient world.
35The Silk RoadThe Silk Road was not one continuous road; rather, it was a series of trade routes that connected China both directly and indirectly to trade markets in South and East Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, and Europe.
36Silk and the Silk RoadFor hundreds of years China was the only country that produced silk because the process of making silk was a carefully guarded secret.Exporting silkworm eggs was a crime.
37Silk and the Silk RoadAfter a while, silk production spread throughout Europe and the Middle East.China was no longer the only country producing silk.However, the high quality and beauty of Chinese silk still made it very popular.
38Silk and the Silk RoadTravelers along the Silk Road were protected by the Great Wall of China. It was first built to keep out invaders from the north.Open trade with the West brought great wealth and new ideas to both regions.
40The Great Wall of ChinaVideo- The Great Wall of China
41Silk and the Silk RoadIn the 1200s, Italian explorer Marco Polo visited China.He brought Chinese culture back to Europe.Chinese ideas spread to the West. This increased the wealth and mixture of ideas in Chinese culture.
42Key Term Marco Polo- An Italian explorer who visited China and brought Chinese culture back to Europe.
44Key Ideas- The Return of Confucianism Confucianism may be considered a religion, a philosophy, an ethical way of life, or even a tradition of learning. For more than 2,000 years, it has permeated Chinese culture and thinking, and it continues to do so today. Neo-Confucianism helped to strengthen and organize the government.
45ConfucianismAmong Confucianism most basic teachings are deep respect for ancestors, parents, and elders; the importance of polite behavior; and concern for other humans.
46Key TermConfucianism- An ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius.
47The Rise of Neo-Confucianism During the Han dynasty, the Emperor Wudi made Confucianism the state philosophy of China.
48The Rise of Neo-Confucianism The Song also established Neo-Confucianism, which developed from a blend of Confucian, Buddhist, and Daoist influences, as the state religion.
49Neo-Confucianism in the Song Dynasty Under this system, government positions went to the qualified individuals who passed a civil service exam rather than being passed down through family lines.
50ExaminationsIn order to become a civil servant, people had to take tests.The better they did on the tests, the higher position they could get in the civil service.The examinations were very difficult.
51ExaminationsMany people would study at the imperial university or under tutors for years in order to pass the tests.A lot of the tests covered the philosophy of Confucius and required lots of memorization.Other subjects included the military, mathematics, geography, and calligraphy.
52Independent ActivityWhat has been the “muddiest” point so far in this lesson? That is, what topic remains the least clear to you? (4 minutes)
53Partner ActivityWork with a neighbor and compare your muddiest point with theirs. Compare what things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)