2 Vocabulary: Total War Fourteen Points Bolshevism Realpolitik Self-determinationLeague of NationsReparationsCollective Security
3 Important People: Lloyd George Woodrow Wilson Georges Clemenceau Kaiser Wilhelm IIVittorio OrlandoEmperor Taisho/Hara Takashi
4 Aims and Goals: background issues Aims and goals were fueled not only by war but by pre-war hopes and dreamsCountries that wanted independence or that at revolted needed to be addressedThings that need to be considered:1. The Bolshevik Revolution: new political philosophy in Europe(feared by some)2. Great Empires shattered: A.H., Ottomans3. A Few Decide: Britain, France and U.S. (Democratic)
5 Aims and goals con’t…4. The war was big on every level: even concepts, “war to end all wars” “To make the world safe for democracy”…5. Popular opinion, propaganda and the media6. Wilson and his 14 Points: assumed that war could be prevented if people made the effort
6 The Aims of the participants… There were two different approaches1. new order of international relations for permanent peace2. desire to punish those who had caused conflict and to get compensationI need help thinking of people to represent this concept…Mean Girls, Heathers…I need a genuinely nice example??
7 The United States - Wilson The desires of the US were expressed by the 14 pointsReflected ideals of democracy and self-determinationLacked specificsSet up League of Nations (forum to settle disputes)Some punishment of Germany and then they could join the LeagueWilson was in Paris for a very long time which took a toll at home
8 The United Kingdom: Lloyd George A house divided: Britain fell into two categories1. Traditional British Foreign Policy-elimination of the German fleet-end of German Empire-defeat German plans for control of Europe-return to normal European relations, restore British economy to fight Bolshevism-no involvement in alliances (except Alsace-Lorraine for balance)
9 U.K. And the Second Camp: non-traditional Wanted a declaration of German war guildWanted Germany to pay extensive reparations $$$This reflects some campaign promises…
10 France… France was very afraid of Germany’s growing power France suffered 2 million dead and wounded during warFrance territory had suffered as a major battle zoneSo France wanted to weaken Germany:DisarmamentTerritory reductionHeavy reparations to weaken economyWanted alliance with UK and US
11 Italy… Simple: territorial gains Wanted territory that had been promised when they entered WWINot fans of self-determination if it impacted themWalked out when denied rights to Dalmatian Coast territories (promised)
12 Japan…Did not like self-determination and wanted to secure a larger empire for security and economic reasonsJapan wanted German territories in ChinaJapan wanted to be “in” with the major players
13 Germany…Germany asked for an armistice in Oct. 1918, they had not been defeated or invaded at the timeSome influence of Wilson’s 14 Points…Germany was not invited to the Conference as they were after Napoleonic Wars in 1815Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated and they established a democratic republic in hopes to gain sympathy
14 …the French people knew what they wanted to write into the treaty of peace-revenge… …”compensation for all they had suffered, and guarantees that a similar war would never happen again…For four years they had believed that the only good German was a dead German. Now they felt that the only safe Germany would be a crippled Germany…” Williamson, D War and Peace: International relations , p. 23.
15 And your homework…Because we do not have books yet…I will re-issue a weekly reading/outline chartDue Friday: Select a speech from one Allied leader prior to the PPC. Answer the questions:1. what promises did the leaders make? 20 pts2. compare the promises/expectations set with their position at the PPC. 20 pts3. Was the public aware? How did they react? 20 ptsDon’t forget to cite your sources!
16 Metacognition and reflection journal… Reflect on the following:Should Germany and the other “losers” have attended the PPC?How do you personally feel about war? Peace? Revenge?Think of a short playlist for the PPC…mine starts with Summertime Sadness and then goes to Shattered by BDOD… maybe throw in HELP by the Beatles…