TODAY’S GOALS Define ABA Review important principles Highlight the use of ABA
Outline Myths and misconceptions about ABA What is ABA? What does ABA investigate? ALL BEHAVIOUR IS FUNCTIONAL How do we find the function Managing Consequences Reinforcement (V.E.R.M.I.) Punishment Summary
Some ABA myths and misconceptions ABA only uses punishment techniques and aversive controls. ABA is only for animal trainers. Its like training a dog ABA is only token reinforcement ABA is just giving sweets to children ABA is when you ignore a child’s misbehaviour and reward good behaviour. ABA is like bribery
What is ABA? ABA is both a philosophy and a science. Behaviourism = The philosophy of the science of behaviour in other words what people do can be understood. ABA= Is the technology(science) used to change behaviour.
IN OTHER WORDS ABA IS A BLEND OF PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE THAT BELIEVES IN SUPPORTING PEOPLE; IMPROVING LIVES IN WAYS THAT THE INDIVIDUAL FINDS MEANINGFUL.
What does ABA investigate? Antecedent (or environment) - internal or external facts that may cause or influence behaviour. Behaviour -What someone says or does Consequence -What happens after the behaviour -Planned and unplanned consequences
How does ABA investigate? Determine a functional relationship between antecedent-behaviour-consequence This information is used to arrange/re-arrange parts of the environment to strengthen or weaken behavioural repertoires.
All behaviour is functional Behaviours are ‘tools’ people use to get their needs met. Repeated actions satisfy a need-from the person’s point of view Behaviours often have more than one function and the function sometimes changes over time
Two main functions of behaviour To gain Attention (people or specific interactions) Things activities or Places Input from sensory experiences To escape (avoid) Attention (People or specific interactions) that are unpleasant Things, Activities or Places (that are unpleasant) Input from (unpleasant) sensory experiences
Example Mia is a new student to primary 5 and her second language is English. When another student approaches her and says something to her in English, Mia turns away. The other student walks away. This happens several times during the day. Setting Event New student Antecedent Student approaches and speaks in English Behaviour Mia turns away Consequence Other student walks away Function Escapes peer attention
Example During a lesson at school John starts to refuse to take part in some of the activities. Setting Event None Antecedent Teacher presents multiple step demands Behaviour John starts to protest verbally, stomps his foot and is non- compliant. Consequence Teacher represent request five times and threatens to keep John in at break time. Function GETS ADULT ATTENTION
Example When Mary misses her medication at lunch time and teachers present lots of task and demands after lunch, Mary makes negative statements and use inappropriate language. The teacher sends her to the office to speak to principal. Setting Event Misses medication at lunch Antecedent Teacher makes multiple demands Behaviour Mary starts to make negative statements and use inappropriate language Consequence Teacher sends Mary to the office to speak to principal Function AVOID TASKS
Name and describe the target behaviour Use a single word or phrase consistently Describe an action(s) of the person Prioritise multiple behaviours First Step
Be a behavioural detective Observe Ask Read, review, analyse Second Step
Form a hypothesis The likely cause of behaviour What the behaviour produces for the person The motivation for a person to act in a certain way The reason why the person acts the way they do The purpose of the behaviour Third Step
Build Skills Establishing/Strengthening Skills that the person can use to satisfy their own needs Teach new ways to satisfy personal needs Target DESIREABLE alternatives to undesirable behaviour Fourth Step
Make adjustments to “set the person up” to succeed Control the form and frequency of known “triggers” Reduce interfering conditions Maximise reinforcement for a desired behaviour
Managing Consequences Two basic categories :- Consequences that establish/strengthen behaviour Consequences that weaken behaviour
Reinforcement Reinforcers are generally things that people have high preference for We deliver reinforcers following student responses and this causes the response to increase. Examples You are more likely to say hello to someone if they return your greeting You are more likely to cook someone's favourite meal if you see how much they like it and how excited they get
Example http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=olNir vVzYFc&feature=player_detailpage#t=0
Reinforcement and Reinforcers Individual – own preferences Change- related to motivation -motivation level can change and so can the reinforcer we want. Rules- they can be remembered through the following acronym V.E.R.M.I
VERMI VALUE - should be high EFFORT - the effort put forward should be equal to the reinforcement RATE- should maintain high level of accurate responding MAGNITUDE- ensure that it is not too big or too small IMMEDIACY- delivery should be within half a second to ensure they know what is being reinforced.
Positive and negative reinforcement Positive Reinforcement- presentation of an item/activity following a behaviour that increases the likelihood of that behaviour occurring again. Negative Reinforcement- termination of an item/activity following a behaviour that increases the likelihood of that behaviour occurring again.
Punishment Not a dirty word only means to weaken behaviour Does not mean corporal punishment or retribution or vengeance Understanding the principle is key A consequence that decreases the frequency of behaviour occurring under similar conditions in the future Examples - you are less likely to say hello to someone, if they do not return your greeting You are less likely to cook a dinner if they suggest how you could have made it better
Negative reinforcement and punishment Negative Reinforcement increases behaviour A baby’s cry is heard... We get up..feed/change/hold the baby...The baby stops crying (Negative Reinforcement) Punishment decreases behaviour You are late to work...You speed... You get caught, pay a fine (Punishment)
Summary: Guiding principles APPLIED- Behaviour is socially significant and will improve ones life. BEHAVIOURAL- targets the behaviour to be changed ANALYTIC- demonstrate that it was the intervention that produced the change. CONCEPTUALLY SYSTEMATIC- described in technical terms e.g. Prompt TECHNOLOGICAL- described in enough detail so someone can replicate it EFFECTIVE- amount of behaviour change should be effective GENERALITY- occur across settings.