# GMAT CRITICAL REASONING Spring 2014. GETTING STARTED 1. Read the question 1. Read the question 2. Identify the type of question 2. Identify the type of.

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GMAT CRITICAL REASONING Spring 2014

GETTING STARTED 1. Read the question 1. Read the question 2. Identify the type of question 2. Identify the type of question 3. Read the stimulus (paragraph) 3. Read the stimulus (paragraph) 4. Identify conclusion (C) and evidence (E). 4. Identify conclusion (C) and evidence (E).

BREAK DOWN THE ARGUMENT Conclusion = Main Idea Conclusion = Main Idea Must be true Must be true Evidence = supporting details Evidence = supporting details

CONCLUSION KEY WORDS Therefore Thus As a result Hence Clearly So Consequently Therefore Thus As a result Hence Clearly So Consequently Evidence key words: because since for Evidence key words: because since for

ASSUMPTION MUST BE TRUE for the Conclusion to be true. MUST BE TRUE for the Conclusion to be true.

ANDAMAN ISLANDS PROBLEM Conclusion: Travel co. with tours to islands risk-free way to make \$\$. Conclusion: Travel co. with tours to islands risk-free way to make \$\$. Assumption: All the people who WANT to go WILL go or CAN go. Assumption: All the people who WANT to go WILL go or CAN go.

CHIMPS’ LIFESPAN PROBLEM Conclusion: Steady chromium intake lowers life expectancy of chimps in captivity Conclusion: Steady chromium intake lowers life expectancy of chimps in captivity Evidence: contrast btwn lifespan of chimps in wild and chimps in captivity Evidence: contrast btwn lifespan of chimps in wild and chimps in captivity Assumption: Chimps in captivity and chimps in the wild have the same lifespan. Assumption: Chimps in captivity and chimps in the wild have the same lifespan.

TYPES OF QUESTIONS Assumption question: The assumption IS the answer. Assumption question: The assumption IS the answer. You can often predict the answer You can often predict the answer Remember: the assumption MUST be true in order for the conclusion to be true. Remember: the assumption MUST be true in order for the conclusion to be true.

SAMPLE ASSUMPTION QUESTIONS ASSUMED ASSUMED ASSUMPTION ASSUMPTION MAKE THE CONCLUSION LOGICAL (MEANS CONCLUSION IS TRUE MAKE THE CONCLUSION LOGICAL (MEANS CONCLUSION IS TRUE VALIDITY OF THE ARGUMENT DEPENDS ON VALIDITY OF THE ARGUMENT DEPENDS ON ARGUMENT PRESUPPOSES WHICH ONE ARGUMENT PRESUPPOSES WHICH ONE

STRENGTHEN/WEAKEN QUESTIONS ATTACK THE CONCLUSION ATTACK THE CONCLUSION ANSWER IS AN ADDITIONAL PIECE OF EVIDENCE ANSWER IS AN ADDITIONAL PIECE OF EVIDENCE WEAKEN QUESTIONS MAKE THE ASSUMPTION NOT TRUE WEAKEN QUESTIONS MAKE THE ASSUMPTION NOT TRUE STRENGTHEN QUESTIONS MAKE THE ASSUMTION TRUE STRENGTHEN QUESTIONS MAKE THE ASSUMTION TRUE

KEY WORDS FOR STRENGTHEN/WEAKEN QUESTIONS Weaken questions: most weaken, seriously damage, casts the most doubt, seriously call into question Weaken questions: most weaken, seriously damage, casts the most doubt, seriously call into question Strengthen questions: most strengthen, provide the most support for, argument would be more persuasive if… Strengthen questions: most strengthen, provide the most support for, argument would be more persuasive if…

INFERENCE QUESTIONS Answer is the Conclusion Answer is the Conclusion Inferable Inferable Implied by Implied by If all the statements, which of the following must also be true If all the statements, which of the following must also be true The statements above, if true, support which of the following. The statements above, if true, support which of the following. Which of the following is best supported by the statements above? Which of the following is best supported by the statements above? The statements above best support which of the following conclusions? The statements above best support which of the following conclusions?

MOST COMMON QUESTION TYPES Assumption Assumption Strengthen Strengthen Weaken Weaken Inference Inference

EXPLAIN QUESTION Look at the LOGIC. Look at the LOGIC. How could two facts actually be true, even though they SEEM to contradict each other? How could two facts actually be true, even though they SEEM to contradict each other? Which of the following would best explain the discrepancy above? Which of the following would best explain the discrepancy above? Which of the following would best resolve the paradox described above Which of the following would best resolve the paradox described above

FLAW QUESTION What is already WRONG with the argument? What is already WRONG with the argument? Which of the following is a flaw in the reasoning above? Which of the following is a flaw in the reasoning above? The argument above is vulnerable to which of the following criticisms. The argument above is vulnerable to which of the following criticisms.

BOLDED STATEMENT QUESTION This asks you to look at two specific sentences This asks you to look at two specific sentences May contain multiple arguments and conclusions, so BE CAREFUL to identify which evidence goes with which conclusion. May contain multiple arguments and conclusions, so BE CAREFUL to identify which evidence goes with which conclusion. Very rare! Very rare!

STEPS TO ATTACKING THE QUESTION Step 1: Identify the question Step 1: Identify the question Step 2: Read, find conclusion, evidence, assumption, make sure you understand. Step 2: Read, find conclusion, evidence, assumption, make sure you understand. Step 3: Predict the answer Step 3: Predict the answer Step 4: Evaluate the answer choices Step 4: Evaluate the answer choices POE: Get rid of answers that are: POE: Get rid of answers that are: Not relevant Not relevant Obviously wrong Obviously wrong

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