2The Growth of China Preview Starting Points Map: China and India Main Idea / Reading FocusThe Qin DynastyThe Han DynastyMap: Qin and Han DynastiesFaces of History: Shi Huangdi
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4The Growth of China Main Idea Reading Focus The Qin and Han dynasties created strong centralized governments that unified China and shaped Chinese civilization for thousands of years to follow.Reading FocusHow did the Qin dynasty unify and expand China?How did the Han dynasty restore unity and strengthen China’s government?
5The Qin DynastyZhou dynasty began to decline around 400 BC, power shifted to local noblesSeveral small states battled for land, power by 300sState of Qin rose to powerLocated on China’s western frontierConquered other states in military campaignsLast rival state fell, 221 BCQin unified Chinese empire
6Rejection of Confucianism Harsh Qin RuleFirst ruler Ying Zheng took title Shi Huangdi, “first emperor”Unified China with help of two advisors, Hanfeizi and Li SiFounded school of LegalismTaught that powerful, efficient government key to maintaining orderRejection of ConfucianismLegalists rejected philosophy developed during Zhou dynastyConfucianists thought rulers should be virtuous, lead by exampleLegalists said rulers should be strong, govern through forceSupported strict laws, stressed harsh punishment for even minor crimes
7Strong, Centralized Government Unlike Zhou rulers, Shi Huangdi weakened rival nobles by taking landForced nobles to move to capital so he could watch themSeized all private arms to prevent rebellionsDivided China into 36 districts, appointed loyalists to govern themMaintaining OrderShi Huangdi ruthlessly suppressed all criticism of his ruleOrdered burning of books which conflicted with Legalist thinkingOnly books on practical subjects like agriculture, medicine sparedConfucian scholars who discussed banned books, criticized Qin government tortured, killed
8The Qin Dynasty Qin Reforms Massive Building Projects Harsh Qin rule unified, strengthened ChinaStandardized laws, writings, monetary systems, weights and measuresAlso standardized width of cart axles, so all carts could travel China’s roadsMassive Building ProjectsImproved irrigation system and increased farm productionExpanded network of roads and canals to link capital to other parts of empireImproved transportation, increased trade, levied heavy taxesQin Growth and DefenseWorked to protect empire from outside threatsQin army pushed nomadic warriors farther north, subdued areas to southJoined separate defensive walls, came to be known as Great Wall of China
9Fall of the Qin Dynasty’s policies fueled anger, resentment Qin dynasty crumbled after Shi Huangdi died, 210 BCPeasants fed up with forced labor, high taxes, rebelledNobles eager to regain land, power, raised armies against new emperorPeasant rebel leader Liu Bang defeated Qin forces, founded Han dynasty
10How did Shi Huangdi unify China and build a strong empire? SummarizeHow did Shi Huangdi unify China and build a strong empire?Answer(s): conquered other states; centralized government; suppressed all criticism; subdued raiders to the north, constructed Great Wall
11The Han Dynasty Restoring Control Gaining Loyalty The Han dynasty ruled China from 206 BC to AD 220—more than 400 years. It would be the model for all later Chinese dynasties.Liu Bang ruled with “mandate of heaven”Ancient Chinese beliefs:Gods supported virtuous rulersOpposed corrupt onesDefeated ruler had lost support of the godsQin ruler defeated by Liu BangRestoring ControlLiu Bang softened harsh Legalist policiesLowered taxes, earned loyalty of peasantsGave large blocks of land to relatives, military supportersDistribution of land earned military’s loyaltyGaining Loyalty
12The Han Dynasty Stability Confucianism Liu Bang continued Qin’s strong, centralized government to weaken rivalsExpanded bureaucracyNumerous officials appointed to oversee administration of Han governmentHelped restore stability to Chinese empireStabilityLiu Bang not well educated, peasant originsAppointed Confucian scholars to advise, serve in governmentConfucianism regained popularity, shaped Han governmentSome Legalist policies remained, maintained firm control over empireConfucianism
13A Powerful Empress Liu Bang died 195 BC Family interests Power play Young son took throne, but too young to ruleHis mother, Empress Lü, ruled in his placeOnly one of Liu Bang’s many wives, Lü plotted for son to be emperorFamily interestsAfter son gained throne, Empress Lü promoted family’s interestsHad series of infants named emperor after son died youngMaintained power for 15 yearsPower playEmpress Lü died, 180 BC; officials had entire Lü family killedPower plays and court intrigues common during Han, later dynastiesCourt plots were distracting, made effective rule difficult
14The Greatest Han Emperor Height of Han DynastyEmperor Wudi ruled from 141 to 187 BCEnergetic, aggressive, considered greatest of all Han rulersPromoted economic growthNew roads, canals made it easier to get products to marketMonopolies on some products; limits on merchants to limit power, wealthWudi wanted officials to hold Confucian valuesDeveloped civil service systemCandidates had to pass exam in Confucian classicsWealthy, influential families continued to control governmentGovernment PhilosophyBiggest threat to Wudi’s security from nomads in steppes north of China, XiongnuExcellent horse skills, fierce warriorsSwept in from steppes, raided settlements along China’s frontierXiongnu
15The Greatest Han Emperor Expansion under WudiWudi expanded empire through warfareBegan to use force against southern Xiongnu tribes, 133 BCFormed alliances with Xiongnu enemies, began to weaken Xiongnu tribesColonized parts of Korea, Manchuria to northeast, Vietnam to south; extended control into Central Asia to west, opened trade routesBrief crisis AD 9 when rebel Wang Mang seized throneHan regained control, AD 25, start of Later Han dynastyLater Han weakened by court intrigues, gap between rich and poor, high taxes crushing poorHan DeclineYellow Turbans revolted AD 184Threw empire into chaosPower shifted to local warlordsWarfare tore region apartChina began turbulent era, Period of Division, which would last 350 yearsRevolt