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1 LEARNING John H. Hummel, Ph.D. Dept. of Psychology, Counseling & Guidance, VSU.

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Presentation on theme: "1 LEARNING John H. Hummel, Ph.D. Dept. of Psychology, Counseling & Guidance, VSU."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 LEARNING John H. Hummel, Ph.D. Dept. of Psychology, Counseling & Guidance, VSU

2 2 Learning n Teachers have to know the principles governing learning in order to design lessons and the class structure to MAXIMIZE students’ achievement. Humans learn all the time. The teacher wants to insure that (a) the right stuff gets learned, and (b) that it’s learned efficiently.

3 3 Learning n Three TYPES of learning –CLASSICAL/RESPONDENT »EMOTIONS/AFFECT; PAVLOV –OPERANT/INSTRUMENTAL »“VOLUNTARY “BEHAVIOR” –SOCIAL LEARNING »OPERANT? MONKEY SEE, MONKEY DO

4 4 Learning-CLASSICAL n Basic model: US-->UR US + NS-->UR NS-->CS CS-->CR Synonyms: UR=CR; CS=NS

5 5 Learning-CLASSICAL n While education is concerned with the affect domain, we are primarily concerned with the COGNITIVE domain because it is most directly related to achievement. n When ever classical learning is occurring, so is operant. Therefore, if we employ operant correctly the affective component will be “covered” too.

6 6 Learning-OPERANT n The principles of operant learning account for virtually all that humans do! These principles operate at all times whenever one is interacting with the environment (includes other people). n Thus, one cannot “CHOOSE” to use or not use operant processes; one’s “CHOICE” is, instead, limited to using the principles SYSTEMATICALLY or nonsystematically.

7 7 Learning-OPERANT n Operant Model: S--> R--> S OR R-->S That is, an antecedent stimulus may/may not influence whether an R occurs. If the R occurs, IT triggers some type of consequence-a change in the environment that will affect the P of the R occurring again.

8 8 Learning-OPERANT n Antecedents. n If an antecedent does affect the P of an R, it is called a DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS. There are 2 types of dis. stimuli: S D and S ². The S D is a signal to do a specific R (the R, in the past, has been rewarded when it occurred in the presence of the S D )

9 9 Operant-antecedents n The S ² is also a signal but it “tells” one NOT to do a R because in the past, the R in the presence of the S ² has produced a “negative” consequence. n To be an effective member of a complex society requires that people “learn” to be sensitive to and react appropriately to antecedents. EXAMPLES

10 10 Operant Learning n The R in operant learning symbolizes a voluntary response--something one can stop once it starts. n When a R occurs, it is the consequence (i.e., the change in the environment) it produces that is critical to learning.

11 11 Operant-Consequences n There are several “rules” one should follow for consequences to work effectively: n Contingency & Consistency (if-then; & reliable) n Power (strong enough and is a “reinforcer” for that person) n Immediacy (time between R & consequence)

12 12 Operant-Consequences n An operant CONSEQUENCE involves (a) presenting/removing of (b) a reinforcer. REINFORCERS Positive Negative (+) (-) (+) strengthen Rs they follow (weaken those leading to their removal). (-) weaken Rs they follow, strengthen those leading to their removal.

13 13 Operant-Consequences n Not all stimuli used as consequences functions as reinforcers for everyone. –Need for CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS n Reinforcers are “manipulated.” When R occurs it triggers: (a) adding or (b) subtracting of the consequence, or (c) no change in the environment (extinction

14 14 n THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA HAS A WONDERFUL TUTORIAL THAT WILL HELP YOU LEARN HOW TO ANALYZE EXAMPLES OF POSITIVE REINFORECEMENT. GO INTO NETSCAPE, CLICK ON THE OPEN BUTTON AND TYPE IN: pair.htm On-line Tutorial on Positive Reinforcement

15 15 Diagraming Consequences n Diagrams Use the Multiplicative Rules n Each diagram specifies the occurrence of a Response:R n After the response you indicate whether a consequences was added or subtracted by using either a + or - sign. n Then you indicate which type of reinforcer was added or subtracted: (+) or (-) n Multiplying the 2 signs after the R “tells” you the effect the procedure has on the R. Write the outcome [+ or -] to the right of the equals sign.

16 16 Basic Operant Processes n There are 5 basic operant processes n Extinction n Positive Reinforcement n Negative Reinforcement n Punishment n Response Cost

17 17 Basic Processes: Diagrams & Definitions n Extinction: No longer reinforcing a previously reinforced response that results in the weakening of the response. n Rs not periodically rewarded stop occurring! R--> 0 (0) = 0

18 18 Basic Processes: Diagrams & Definitions n Positive Reinforcement. Reinforcement ALWAYS strengthens a response. n After a response, add a positive reinforcer and the behavior is more likely to reoccur. R--> + (+) = +

19 19 Basic Processes: Diagrams & Definitions n Negative Reinforcement: Reinforcement always strengthens a response. n After the response remove a negative reinforcer and the response is more likely to reoccur. R--> - (-) = +

20 20 Basic Processes: Diagrams & Definitions n Punishment: After a response, add a negative reinforcer and the response is less likely to reoccur. R--> + (-) = -

21 21 Basic Processes: Diagrams & Definitions n Response Cost: Literally, one’s response “costs” the person something of value. n After a response remove a positive reinforcer and the response is less likely to reoccur. R--> - (+) = -

22 22 SCHEDULES: When do Rs Trigger Consequences n Schedules specify WHEN an occurrence of a response will produce, normally, reinforcement. SCHEDULES CRF INTERMITTENT EXTINCTION FR1 Other FRs No Consequence VR FI VI

23 23 SCHEDULES n THE CRF SCHEDULE SPECIFIES THAT EACH OCCURRENCE OF THE R TRIGGERS REINFORCEMENT. WHENEVER THE R OCCURS, SO DOES THE CONSEQUENCE. (CRF IS USED TO TEACH NEW Rs AND WHEN ONE IS DECREASING AN EXISTING R.)

24 24 Schedules n Intermittent schedules, as a group, specify that some occurrences of the R produce reinforcement, but not all. Two Classes: n Time-based: the INTERVAL SCHEDULES n Response-based: the RATION Schedules

25 25 Schedules n Both Interval and Ratio schedules are subdivided according to whether the time (or number of Rs) is Fixed or Variable. n Fixed Ratio: A set # of Rs must occur before reinforcement. The # is constant. n Variable Ratio: A set # of Rs must occur before reinforcement but the # required changes after each reinforcement.

26 26 Schedules n Fixed Interval: A set amount of time must pass then the first occurrence of the R triggers reinforcement. The amount of time is constant. n Variable Interval: A set amount of time must pass then the 1st occurrence of the R triggers reinforcement; the amount of time required changes after each reinforcement.

27 27 Summary Points-Learning n Teachers must know the processes associated with the various types of conditioning in order to effectively transmit information. The laws and principles of learning are intimately interrelated with other topics we’ll be discussing including memory, motivation, classroom management, effective instruction, etc. n A. to arrange situations so students are motivated to study and more easily/rapidly learn academically and socially relevant skills.

28 28 Summary Points-Learning n Too much PASSIVE learning goes on in schools. The principles of learning tell us, dramatically, that in order for students to learn they must overtly respond frequently. This is incredibly important. It is associated with fluency, affects memory, and is related to how easily content is connected to other learned material. n A. Teachers must use have students make more responses (i.e., do particular behaviors/activities) than they do currently. To do this, teachers need to use the various types of reinforcement more effectively (CIP)

29 29 Summary Pt.’s-Learning n Much of the misbehavior in classes results from negative reinforcement produced by instruction that is boring, ineffective, or inappropriate to the students’ background knowledge.

30 30 Summary Pt.’s-Learning n Some teachers incorrectly believe that they can teach (and that students can learn) without utilizing conditioning principles. This is simply not true. You cannot not use conditioning processes! The choice educators do have is to utilize conditioning principles in systematic ways or chaotically. All teachers of all subjects across all grade levels can reach more students be systematically incorporating conditioning laws into their instruction.

31 31 Summary Pt.’s-Learning There are too many educators who erroneously believe that reinforcing student responses (e.g., doing assignments, asking/answering questions, working with others, etc.) once they have acquired/learned the response is wrong. Nothing could be further from the truth. Overt responses that are not rewarded (reinforced) every now and then will extinguish--the student will stop doing them. When this occurs, teachers often, unconsciously, change the tone of the class to a negative one by using aversive procedures to get students to do necessary work.

32 32 Summary Points-Learning n The emphasis should be on positively reinforcing students responses that are appropriate. Reinforcement that is correctly used is never inappropriate; it is never bribery; it never hurts students in any way. Not reinforcing their appropriate responses (and arranging appropriate contingencies for their inappropriate responses) does harm students.

33 33 Behavior Modification n Managing a classroom involves (a) a high level of ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, (b) contingencies, & (c) insuring students know what the “rules-and-consequences” for deportment and academics are. The emphasis is on POSITIVES.

34 34 Behavior Modification n BM programs involve the systematic application of learning principles to change students’ behavior. A BM program can be established to: Teach new skills, increase or maintain existing levels of a behavior, or decrease a behavior.

35 35 Steps in a BM Program 1.First, operationally define the behavior 2.Collect baseline data –(A) Insures that the R warrants intervention –(B) Used as a standard of comparison to evaluate intervention’s effectiveness 3. Identify & apply intervention. If intervention involves pun., RC, or Ext., you should always have a positive component

36 36 Steps in a BM Program 4.Continue collecting data during intervention. Evaluate effectiveness of program and modify if needed. 5.Once program goals are reached, FADE program so normally occurring contingencies in the class maintain the behavior.

37 37 Social Learning Theory n Monkey see, Monkey do! n In Bandura and Walter’s Theory, the assumption is that much social (and academic but to a lesser degree) is learned via observing others; other students, significant adults, t.v., etc. n Systematic observational learning has 4 phases.

38 38 Social Learning Theory 4 Phases of Social Learning: AReRepMo 1. Attention of learner 2. Retention: Model behavior have learner practice covertly or overtly 3. Reproduction: Have learner overtly practice in absence of model. 4. Motivation: Reward performance.


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