France and Absolutism Henry IV saw to lessen or curtail the power of large regional France parlements or groups of powerful nobles. Henry IV and the Duke of Sully set up royal monopolies on gunpowder, mines, and salt. Henry began a canal system connecting the Mediterranean with the Atlantic. They also introduced the corvee or labor tax to fix the French infrastructure. Henry IV is assassinated in 1610 and his Henry’s son Louis XIII at 9, takes over.
Cardinal Richelieu and France The Queen Mother Marie de Medicis governed France during Louis’ regency. She signed the Treaty of Fontainbleau with Spain. She also promoted Cardinal Armand Richelieu. Richelieu establishes a government that rules for 150 years. Richelieu wanted to make the power of the monarch supreme. He wanted to weaken the nobles and the Huguenots, and the Hapsburgs.
Richelieu’s Plan for France Richelieu limited the power of the nobles by ordering that all castles be dismantled. He also appointed intendants as local administrators. Nobles appointed as royal officials. ( Loyal to the King ) Limited the power of the Huguenots. Weaken the power of the Hapsburgs. The Thirty Years War and the Treaty of Westphalia forced the Hapsburgs east. Richelieu handpicks Cardinal Mazarin.
The Rise of the Sun King in France Louis XIV remembered the rebellion of the Fronde. The Fronde is put down by Cardinal Mazarin. Louis XIV builds Versailles. Jean Colbert was his finance advisor. Louis repeals the Edict of Nantes, expels Huguenots. Louis XIV fights a series of expensive Wars. Treaty of Utrecht ends the war of the Spanish succession.
The Wars of Louis XIV Louis XIV invades Flanders in the War of Devolution - The Triple Alliance forces Louis to sign the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 1668. Invasion of the Netherlands – again King William of Orange leads the Dutch. The Peace of Nijmwegen ends the conflict 1678-1679. Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes in 1685 The Nine Years’ War – League of Augsburg organized to resist French expansion at the same time King William’s War in North America The Peace of Ryswick. Treaty of Utrecht ends the war of the Spanish succession. Philip of Anjou become Philip V of Spain. 1701 –1714.
The French Colonial Empire French Explorers like Robert de La Salle, and Jacques Cartier explored North America. The French East India Company expands in India. Louis XIV died in 1714. France was now the most powerful nation in Europe. Louis XV ruled for another 60 years. The seeds are sown for the French Revolution.