Presentation on theme: "The New Republic Begins 1789-1800 I don’t need these anymore."— Presentation transcript:
The New Republic Begins I don’t need these anymore.
Launching the New Government In this unit we will focus on these essential concepts: 1. Explore how George Washington set precedents for future presidents. 2. Describe Alexander Hamilton’s plan to help the national debt. 3. Discuss Washington’s foreign policy plan. 4. Identify how political parties started in America. 5. Explain how a war with France was avoided. 6. Highlights of the Adam’s Administration.
The New Government George Washington was inaugurated as the First President of the United States on April 30, 1789 in New York City. Washington set many precedents as the first President.precedents Washington faced many economic problems in his 2 terms.economic problems
Washington’s Precedents Precedent - a decision or action that sets an example for others to follow What are examples of precedents in your life? Washington understood the position he was in: “There is scarcely any part of my conduct which may not be hereafter be drawn into precedent.”
He looked “grave, almost to sadness”, recalled one senator. Why was President Washington so grave and serious on the day he took office? The future of his nation was full of uncertainty. Many people, especially the British, expected the nation to fall.
The Federal Court System Judiciary Act of established the scope of the Judicial Branch of Government Supreme Court – 5 Associate Justices and 1 Chief Justice (today 8 Associate Justices and 1 Chief Justice) 3 Federal Circuit Courts – one for each region of the country (today 11) 13 Federal District Courts – one for each state (today there are 94) John Jay – First Chief Justice (Today: John Roberts)
Washington’s Cabinet Cabinet - A group of advisors to the President Washington’s first Cabinet included: Secretary of State- Secretary of Treasury- Secretary of War- Attorney General- *Postmaster General-
Choosing a Cabinet Secretary of State (Thomas Jefferson) Secretary of the Treasury (Alexander Hamilton) Secretary of War (Henry Knox) Attorney General (Edmund Randolph) Postmaster General (Samuel Osgood)
Battling the National Debt After the American Revolution, our country had a huge national debt. huge national debt *National Debt - the amount a country owes to creditors *National Government and States both owed money from the Revolution. *National Government borrowed money by selling bonds
Money Problems of the New Nation Amount Owed Income $77,228,000 Debt $ 4,269,000 to run government Total: $ 81,497,000Total: $ 4,418,000 $ 4,399,000 from tariffs $ 19,000 from other sources
Hamilton’s Plan to Repay the Debt Step 1: Buy up the bonds issued by the national and state governments before Step 2: The national government would pay all debts owed by the states (Assumption Bill) We’ll pay all your debts Thank You! But we already paid ours!
James Madison Leads the Opposition Madison disliked Hamilton’s plan for 2 reasons: 1. Speculators would make a huge profit from the government – would be paid “face value” *Soldiers were paid in bonds and sold them to speculators.(paid $.15 on the dollar) 2. Most Southern states already paid off their debts.
Hamilton’s Compromise 1. Hamilton knew many Southerners wanted to move the nation’s capital to the South. 2. The South agreed to pass Hamilton’s Plan if the capital was moved. A> The capital was agreed to be placed along the Potomac River and between Maryland and VA. B>. This area would be called the District of Columbia. 3. The capital was moved from New York to Philadelphia for 10 years while Washington D.C. was prepared.
Let’s take a look!
Hamilton’s National Bank The Bank of the United States was established in 1791.
The Bank of the United States Modeled after the British National Bank Stock would be sold to raise capital (money) –Government would retain 20% –80% sold to private investors –1 share cost $400 – would have 25,000 shares to start –Profits to pay down debt –Banks placed in major cities (New York and Philadelphia
Helping American Business Tariffs and Protective Tariffs Tariff - A tax on an imported good or item Protective Tariff - a tax that protects American business from foreign competition. What items have tariffs placed on them today? Before the tariff, items cost this much After the tariff, items cost this much
The French Revolution July 14, 1789, the French Revolution French people wanted a constitution similar to America At first, Americans were supportive Americans became uncomfortable with the violence
Washington Avoids War France wanted US support since we had a treaty of perpetual friendship from the US Revolution Hamilton was not in favor of U.S. aid to France Jefferson in favor of U.S. aid to France Washington knew US could not go to war… issued the Neutrality Proclamation New government – old treaty void… set the stage for future problems
Problems with England and Jay’s Treaty 130 American ships captured by British British still in Ohio River Valley US sailors being “impressed” Talk of war with England Jay’s Treaty Britain agreed to pay for damaged ships Britain agreed to give up forts in Ohio River Valley once US paid pre-war debt Commission would look into “debt”
Political Parties In 1789, there were no political parties Most people distrusted political parties Disagreements between Washington’s chief advisors, Hamilton and Jefferson, started political parties
Hamilton and Jefferson
Hamilton Spoke forcefully (dressed elegantly) Wanted a strong federal gov’t. Supported the Bank of the U.S. Supported a loose interpretation of the Constitution Mistrusted common people Favored Britain as a trading partner
Jefferson Informal dress and speech Favored strong state governments Opposed the Bank of the U.S. Supported strict interpretation of the Constitution Believed in common people Favored trade with France
The Federalist Years John Adams – 2 nd President of the United States of America Washington declined to run for a third term Opened the field- Federalists Nominated: John Adams Antifederalists nominated: Thomas Jefferson John Adams – 2 nd President
John Adams – 2 nd President of the United States Election Results for 1796 71 votes – John Adams – Federalist 68 votes – Thomas Jefferson – Democratic Republican
John Adams – 2 nd President of the United States Alien Act Sedition Act Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions Election of 1800 XYZ Affair
John Adams – 2 nd President of the United States Alien Act Meant to weaken the Democratic- Republican Party -President could deport any foreigner deemed dangerous -Naturalization Act – wait 14 years before becoming a citizen -Alien Enemies Act – deport foreigners from countries the US is at war with
John Adams – 2 nd President of the United States Sedition Act Meant to weaken the Democratic- Republican Party -Sedition – stirring up rebellion Could be jailed for criticizing the government
John Adams – 2 nd President of the United States Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions each state could declare a federal law unconstitutional Nullify – cancel a law passed by the federal government
John Adams – 2 nd President of the United States XYZ Affair France Upset -Neutrality Proclamation --Jay’s Treaty Adams sent ambassador -Frenchman Tallyrand demanded a $240, bribe and a $10 million loan “Millions for defense but not one cent for tribute -2 year Quazi War
John Adams – 2 nd President of the United States Election of 1800 “Revolution of 1800” -1. Jefferson and Burr tied 2 House of Representatives voted 36 times 3.Jefferson chosen th Amendment provided for separate ballots for President and Vice President