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The New Republic Begins

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Presentation on theme: "The New Republic Begins"— Presentation transcript:

1 The New Republic Begins
I don’t need these anymore.

2 Launching the New Government
In this unit we will focus on these essential concepts: 1. Explore how George Washington set precedents for future presidents. 2. Describe Alexander Hamilton’s plan to help the national debt. 3. Discuss Washington’s foreign policy plan. 4. Identify how political parties started in America. 5. Explain how a war with France was avoided. 6. Highlights of the Adam’s Administration.


4 The New Government George Washington was inaugurated as the First President of the United States on April 30, 1789 in New York City. Washington set many precedents as the first President. Washington faced many economic problems in his 2 terms.

5 Washington’s Precedents
Precedent - a decision or action that sets an example for others to follow What are examples of precedents in your life? Washington understood the position he was in: “There is scarcely any part of my conduct which may not be hereafter be drawn into precedent.”

6 Washington’s Inauguration
Can you see any examples of a precedent here?


8 He looked “grave, almost to sadness”, recalled one senator
He looked “grave, almost to sadness”, recalled one senator. Why was President Washington so grave and serious on the day he took office? The future of his nation was full of uncertainty. Many people, especially the British, expected the nation to fall.

9 The Federal Court System
Judiciary Act of 1789 -established the scope of the Judicial Branch of Government John Jay – First Chief Justice (Today: John Roberts) Supreme Court – 5 Associate Justices and 1 Chief Justice (today 8 Associate Justices and 1 Chief Justice) 3 Federal Circuit Courts – one for each region of the country (today 11) 13 Federal District Courts – one for each state (today there are 94)

10 Washington’s Cabinet Cabinet - A group of advisors to the President
Washington’s first Cabinet included: Secretary of State - Secretary of Treasury - Secretary of War - Attorney General - *Postmaster General -


12 Choosing a Cabinet Secretary of State (Thomas Jefferson)
Secretary of the Treasury (Alexander Hamilton) Secretary of War (Henry Knox) Attorney General (Edmund Randolph) Postmaster General (Samuel Osgood)

13 Battling the National Debt
After the American Revolution, our country had a huge national debt. *National Debt - the amount a country owes to creditors *National Government and States both owed money from the Revolution. *National Government borrowed money by selling bonds

14 Money Problems of the New Nation
Amount Owed Income $ 4,399,000 from tariffs $77,228,000 Debt $ 19,000 from other sources $4,269,000 to run government Total: $ 81,497,000 Total: $ 4,418,000

15 Hamilton’s Plan to Repay the Debt
Step 1: Buy up the bonds issued by the national and state governments before 1789. Step 2: The national government would pay all debts owed by the states (Assumption Bill) Thank You! We’ll pay all your debts But we already paid ours!

16 James Madison Leads the Opposition
Madison disliked Hamilton’s plan for 2 reasons: 1. Speculators would make a huge profit from the government – would be paid “face value” *Soldiers were paid in bonds and sold them to speculators.(paid $.15 on the dollar) 2. Most Southern states already paid off their debts.

17 Hamilton’s Compromise
1. Hamilton knew many Southerners wanted to move the nation’s capital to the South. 2. The South agreed to pass Hamilton’s Plan if the capital was moved. A> The capital was agreed to be placed along the Potomac River and between Maryland and VA. B>. This area would be called the District of Columbia. 3. The capital was moved from New York to Philadelphia for 10 years while Washington D.C. was prepared.



20 Let’s take a look!

21 Hamilton’s National Bank
The Bank of the United States was established in 1791.

22 The Bank of the United States
Modeled after the British National Bank Stock would be sold to raise capital (money) Government would retain 20% 80% sold to private investors 1 share cost $400 – would have 25,000 shares to start Profits to pay down debt Banks placed in major cities (New York and Philadelphia

23 Helping American Business
Tariffs and Protective Tariffs Tariff - A tax on an imported good or item Protective Tariff - a tax that protects American business from foreign competition. What items have tariffs placed on them today? Before the tariff, items cost this much After the tariff, items cost this much

24 The French Revolution July 14, 1789, the French Revolution
French people wanted a constitution similar to America At first, Americans were supportive Americans became uncomfortable with the violence

25 Washington Avoids War France wanted US support since we had a treaty of perpetual friendship from the US Revolution Hamilton was not in favor of U.S. aid to France Jefferson in favor of U.S. aid to France Washington knew US could not go to war… issued the Neutrality Proclamation New government – old treaty void… set the stage for future problems                   

26 Problems with England and Jay’s Treaty
130 American ships captured by British British still in Ohio River Valley US sailors being “impressed” Talk of war with England Jay’s Treaty Britain agreed to pay for damaged ships Britain agreed to give up forts in Ohio River Valley once US paid pre-war debt Commission would look into “debt”                   

27 Political Parties In 1789, there were no political parties
Most people distrusted political parties Disagreements between Washington’s chief advisors, Hamilton and Jefferson, started political parties

28 Hamilton and Jefferson

29 Hamilton Spoke forcefully (dressed elegantly)
Wanted a strong federal gov’t. Supported the Bank of the U.S. Supported a loose interpretation of the Constitution Mistrusted common people Favored Britain as a trading partner

30 Jefferson Informal dress and speech Favored strong state governments
Opposed the Bank of the U.S. Supported strict interpretation of the Constitution Believed in common people Favored trade with France

31 The Federalist Years John Adams – 2nd President of the United States of America
Washington declined to run for a third term Opened the field- Federalists Nominated: John Adams Antifederalists nominated: Thomas Jefferson John Adams – 2nd President

32 John Adams – 2nd President of the United States
Election Results for 1796 71 votes – John Adams – Federalist 68 votes – Thomas Jefferson – Democratic Republican

33 John Adams – 2nd President of the United States
XYZ Affair Alien Act Sedition Act Election of 1800 Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions

34 John Adams – 2nd President of the United States
Alien Act Meant to weaken the Democratic-Republican Party -President could deport any foreigner deemed dangerous -Naturalization Act – wait 14 years before becoming a citizen -Alien Enemies Act – deport foreigners from countries the US is at war with

35 John Adams – 2nd President of the United States
-Sedition – stirring up rebellion Sedition Act Meant to weaken the Democratic-Republican Party Could be jailed for criticizing the government

36 John Adams – 2nd President of the United States
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions -each state could declare a federal law unconstitutional Nullify – cancel a law passed by the federal government

37 John Adams – 2nd President of the United States
XYZ Affair 1797 -France Upset Neutrality Proclamation -Jay’s Treaty Adams sent ambassador -Frenchman Tallyrand demanded a $240, bribe and a $10 million loan “Millions for defense but not one cent for tribute -2 year Quazi War

38 John Adams – 2nd President of the United States
Election of 1800 “Revolution of 1800” -1. Jefferson and Burr tied 2 House of Representatives voted 36 times 3.Jefferson chosen 4. 12th Amendment provided for separate ballots for President and Vice President


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