Presentation on theme: "The New Republic Begins"— Presentation transcript:
1The New Republic Begins I don’t need these anymore.
2Launching the New Government In this unit we will focus on these essential concepts:1. Explore how George Washington set precedents for future presidents.2. Describe Alexander Hamilton’s plan to help the national debt.3. Discuss Washington’s foreign policy plan.4. Identify how political parties started in America.5. Explain how a war with France was avoided.6. Highlights of the Adam’s Administration.
4The New GovernmentGeorge Washington was inaugurated as the First President of the United States on April 30, 1789 in New York City.Washington set many precedents as the first President.Washington faced many economic problems in his 2 terms.
5Washington’s Precedents Precedent - a decision or action that sets an example for others to followWhat are examples of precedents in your life?Washington understood the position he was in:“There is scarcely any part of my conductwhich may not be hereafter be drawn intoprecedent.”
6Washington’s Inauguration Can you see any examples of a precedent here?
8He looked “grave, almost to sadness”, recalled one senator He looked “grave, almost to sadness”, recalled one senator. Why was President Washington so grave and serious on the day he took office? The future of his nation was full of uncertainty. Many people, especially the British, expected the nation to fall.
9The Federal Court System Judiciary Act of 1789-established the scope of the Judicial Branch of GovernmentJohn Jay – First Chief Justice(Today: John Roberts)Supreme Court –5 Associate Justices and 1 Chief Justice(today 8 Associate Justices and 1 Chief Justice)3 Federal Circuit Courts – one for each region of the country (today 11)13 Federal District Courts – one for each state (today there are 94)
10Washington’s Cabinet Cabinet - A group of advisors to the President Washington’s first Cabinet included:Secretary of State -Secretary of Treasury -Secretary of War -Attorney General -*Postmaster General -
12Choosing a Cabinet Secretary of State (Thomas Jefferson) Secretary of the Treasury (Alexander Hamilton)Secretary of War (Henry Knox)Attorney General (Edmund Randolph)Postmaster General (Samuel Osgood)
13Battling the National Debt After the American Revolution, our country had a huge national debt.*National Debt - the amount a country owes to creditors*National Government and States both owed money from the Revolution.*National Government borrowed money by selling bonds
14Money Problems of the New Nation Amount Owed Income$ 4,399,000 from tariffs$77,228,000 Debt$ 19,000 from other sources$4,269,000 to run governmentTotal: $ 81,497,000 Total: $ 4,418,000
15Hamilton’s Plan to Repay the Debt Step 1: Buy up the bonds issued by the national and state governments before 1789.Step 2: The national government would pay all debts owed by the states (Assumption Bill)ThankYou!We’ll pay allyour debtsBut we already paid ours!
16James Madison Leads the Opposition Madison disliked Hamilton’s plan for 2 reasons:1. Speculators would make a huge profit from the government – would be paid “face value”*Soldiers were paid in bonds and sold them to speculators.(paid $.15 on the dollar)2. Most Southern states already paid off their debts.
17Hamilton’s Compromise 1. Hamilton knew many Southerners wanted to move the nation’s capital to the South.2. The South agreed to pass Hamilton’s Plan if the capital was moved.A> The capital was agreed to be placed along thePotomac River and between Maryland and VA.B>. This area would be called the District ofColumbia.3. The capital was moved from New York to Philadelphia for 10 years while Washington D.C. was prepared.
21Hamilton’s National Bank The Bank of the United States was established in 1791.
22The Bank of the United States Modeled after the British National BankStock would be sold to raise capital (money)Government would retain 20%80% sold to private investors1 share cost $400 – would have 25,000 shares to startProfits to pay down debtBanks placed in major cities (New York and Philadelphia
23Helping American Business Tariffs and Protective TariffsTariff - A tax on an imported good or itemProtective Tariff - a tax that protects American business from foreign competition.What items have tariffs placed on them today?Before the tariff, items cost this muchAfter the tariff, items cost this much
24The French Revolution July 14, 1789, the French Revolution French people wanted a constitution similar to AmericaAt first, Americans were supportiveAmericans became uncomfortable with the violence
25Washington Avoids WarFrance wanted US support since we had a treaty of perpetual friendship from the US RevolutionHamilton was not in favor of U.S. aid to FranceJefferson in favor of U.S. aid to FranceWashington knew US could not go to war… issued the Neutrality ProclamationNew government – old treaty void… set the stage for future problems
26Problems with England and Jay’s Treaty 130 American ships captured by BritishBritish still in Ohio River ValleyUS sailors being “impressed”Talk of war with EnglandJay’s TreatyBritain agreed to pay for damaged shipsBritain agreed to give up forts in Ohio River Valley once US paid pre-war debtCommission would look into “debt”
27Political Parties In 1789, there were no political parties Most people distrusted political partiesDisagreements between Washington’s chief advisors, Hamilton and Jefferson, started political parties
29Hamilton Spoke forcefully (dressed elegantly) Wanted a strong federal gov’t.Supported the Bank of the U.S.Supported a loose interpretation of the ConstitutionMistrusted common peopleFavored Britain as a trading partner
30Jefferson Informal dress and speech Favored strong state governments Opposed the Bank of the U.S.Supported strict interpretation of the ConstitutionBelieved in common peopleFavored trade with France
31The Federalist Years John Adams – 2nd President of the United States of America Washington declined to run for a third termOpened the field- Federalists Nominated: John AdamsAntifederalists nominated: Thomas JeffersonJohn Adams – 2nd President
32John Adams – 2nd President of the United States Election Results for 179671 votes – John Adams – Federalist68 votes – Thomas Jefferson – Democratic Republican
33John Adams – 2nd President of the United States XYZAffairAlien ActSedition ActElection of 1800Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions
34John Adams – 2nd President of the United States Alien ActMeant to weaken the Democratic-Republican Party-President could deport any foreigner deemed dangerous-Naturalization Act – wait 14 years before becoming a citizen-Alien Enemies Act – deport foreigners from countries the US is at war with
35John Adams – 2nd President of the United States -Sedition – stirring up rebellionSedition ActMeant to weaken the Democratic-Republican PartyCould be jailed for criticizing the government
36John Adams – 2nd President of the United States Kentucky andVirginia Resolutions-each state could declare a federal law unconstitutionalNullify – cancel a law passed by the federal government
37John Adams – 2nd President of the United States XYZAffair1797-France UpsetNeutrality Proclamation-Jay’s TreatyAdams sent ambassador-Frenchman Tallyrand demanded a $240, bribe and a $10 million loan“Millions for defense but not one cent for tribute-2 year Quazi War
38John Adams – 2nd President of the United States Election of 1800“Revolution of 1800”-1. Jefferson and Burr tied2 House of Representatives voted 36 times3.Jefferson chosen4. 12th Amendment provided for separate ballots for President and Vice President