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1 Lecture 17: Socioeconomic Developments and State Building in China and Russia SOSC 152.

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1 1 Lecture 17: Socioeconomic Developments and State Building in China and Russia SOSC 152

2 2 A. Key Topics Lecture focuses on role of class in pre-revolutionary society state strength – capacity of traditional regime external factors links between the state and social elites in affecting the development of the pre-revolutionary and post- revolutionary regimes. *how much autonomy did the social/political elites have from the state as key factor affecting the pattern of revolution, links to society after revolution and pattern of change

3 3 B. Background to Chinese Revolution 1. Dynastic traditions based on “Mandate of Heaven” ( 天命 ) and right of rebellion in face of unvirtuous rulers

4 4 from local level to central government, key role for "gentry class" composed of landlord families who joined state administration through examination system. gentry tied to state through exams and government posts as measure of success, upward mobility, means of attaining wealth and prestige., interdependent relationship: state needed gentry to collect taxes, manage society and irrigation systems lowest level state official at county (hsien) level ( 縣長 ); below that is “sub-system autonomy” with gentry relatively autonomous from the state Less tendency towards absolute power not feudal system where all peasants belong to the state -- in China, landlord/tenant system based on rents. 2. Relationship of Gentry ( 紳士 ) and State

5 5 a. Domestic Factors: From mid-1800s rapid population growth, intra-court corruption, peasant rebellions rise of local militias run by gentry to keep local order as county governments weaken, these militias begin to undermine regime. Qing selling government posts. Taiping Rebellion, largest rebellion of 19th century--20 million dead Regional armies after Taiping remain very powerful effort at reform in 1870s, Tongzhi ( 同治 ) Restoration, fails to change system Politicization of provincial gentry collapse of exam system in 1905 Failure of parliamentary reform and constitutional monarchy 3. Weakening of Qing State

6 6 b. External Factors: foreign intrusions from weaken legitimacy of Qing local militias become regional armies run by regional military leaders costs of war reparations and opium addiction harm Qing economy railroad buy back movement led by provincial elites, 1905 rise of nationalism and national interest challenges Confucianism ( 孔子主義 ) Sino-Japanese War, , Confucianism cannot save China and manage relations with other states

7 7 a. Nationalist Revolution, 1911 military secession by provincial military rulers leads to collapse of dynasty Secession, not violent overthrow Kuomintang ( 國民黨 ) plays some role, but lacks military strength to run China failure of new political institutions in , Presidency of Yuan Shi-kai, declares himself Emperor in 1916 collapse of central government and rise of Warlord Period ( ) 4. Nature of Chinese Revolution

8 8 b. Kuomintang ( 國民黨 ) - Communist ( 共產黨 ) Struggle: Early Years, Comintern helps form both KMT and CCP, establish Leninist parties KMT more powerful in early years, unifies China in 1927, with regional military leaders co-opted into KMT CCP fails to build successful urban base, driven out of cities by KMT in 1927 CCP stays in countryside ( 江西 ), builds rural support based on reducing rents and destroying landlords (shifting policy) Long March to Yan'an, CCP eventually rules 90 million people in northwest, builds local party-state. Great experience in governing a large population from in Yan’an

9 9 The rise of the Chinese Communists

10 10 c. Civil War, KMT forced to withdraw by Japanese invasion in North China after 1937 success of CCP based on mobilizing peasants for nationalist, anti-Japanese cause in areas under Japanese control also successful rent-reduction campaign, good ties between people and Red Army party control over military makes CCP more effective military force Chinese communist path to power gives CCP and Mao special ability to mobilize ( 發動 ) rural villagers for major political campaigns in the 1950s

11 11 Land Reform ( ) Collectivization ( ) Great Leap Forward ( ) and People’s Communes ( 人民公社 ) Famine of and retreat from Great Leap leave peasant problem unresolved

12 12 mix of "revolution from above," which was Soviet method, and mass mobilization based on mix of material, ideological, and coercive incentives external threat intensified due to Korean War, intensifies search for internal enemies Land Reform to pay back peasants for supporting CCP revolution state takes control of grain markets in 1953, but farmers refuse to sell to state Peasant resistance leads to intensified party control 5. Nature of Post-Revolutionary Regime

13 13 Mao pushes more rapid collectivization despite strong Party opposition collectivization occurs through mix of incentives constant battle between Maoist mass mobilization based on class struggle and radical ideology versus party leadership favoring economic development failure of Mao's effort to attain "communism" under Great Leap Forward leads to massive famine, millions of deaths, and 5 years of reform ( ) but again, Mao's fear of capitalist restoration leads to Cultural Revolution in 1966

14 14 a. Pre-revolutionary Regime much more centralized, absolutist regime, no independent social class former gentry class replaced with service gentry owing allegiance to Czar hierarchy of noble ranks same as in state bureaucracy "serfdom" for farmers, unable to leave land state-led economic development, squeezing peasants through exports to promote industrialization in 1890s and 1900s. strong secret police. 6. Key Characteristics of Russian Case

15 15 b. Nature of Revolution important role of foreign influences, loss of Russo-Japanese War (1905) leads to first revolution and failed effort at liberalization by Czarist regime WWI leads to collapse of Czar in Feb 1917 and failure of bourgeois revolution conspiratorial Bolsheviks take power through urban insurrection based on street protests, soldiers defect from army, peasants rebel.

16 16 c. Nature of Post-Revolutionary Changes , War Communism period of reform, ends over dispute over grain procurement , Stalin intensifies collectivization, kills 3 million rich peasants 1931, huge famine – 10 million dead (like China) establishment of very powerful state, leading industrialization executions of top party and military leaders in

17 17 Comparisons of Two Regimes 1. For national Revolution: Lack of democratic alternative in both societies due to lack of strong bourgeois class strong military forces in China -- KMT and CCP -- do not allow for serious third party if Russian democrats in 1917 had withdrawn from WWI they might have succeeded. 2. Urban based insurrection in Russia allows for quick communist victory after collapse of traditional regime in China, , long period following national revolution allows central authority to decrease weaker urban working class in China also leads to peasant revolution strategy

18 18 3. Different path to power affects treatment of farmers and strategy of collectivization also makes CCP ( 中共 ) more mass mobilization, combined with coercion CCP with stronger base in society Russians favor revolution from above, with no experience governing before taking power, rely on secret police China more willing to respond to peasant demand for decollectivization in Role of Foreign Factors great in both revolutions, bringing quick breakdown of traditional regime in Russia due to WWI, slower breakdown in China due to long period of foreign intrusion


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