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Chapter 11 Care of the Older Person Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Care of the Older Person Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Care of the Older Person Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2 The Older Person  Gerontology-is the study of the aging process.  Geriatrics-is the care of aging people.  Aging is normal.  Normal changes occur in body structure and function.  Psychological and social changes also occur-we will review these today Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 2

3 Psychological-Social Changes  Physical reminders of growing old can threaten self-esteem and independence.  Social roles change-some are now being cared for by their children  How people cope with aging depends on:  Health status  Life experiences  Finances  Education  Social support systems Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 3

4 The Older Person  People live longer than ever before.  Retirement is the reward for a life time of working.  Not all people are lucky enough to have the money or health to enjoy it.  Chronic illness is common in older persons.  Disability often results  Many have at least one disability Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 4

5 Housing Options-only 5% of the 65+ elderly live in nursing homes!  Live with family  Adult day-care centers during the day  Nursing centers  Assisted living residences  Continuing care retirement communities (CCRCs)-have all levels  Board and care homes  Congregate housing  Senior citizen housing Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 5

6 Physical Changes  Physical changes occur with aging.  These happen to everyone.  The rate and degree of change vary with each person.  They depend on diet, health, exercise, stress, environment, heredity, and other factors.  Quality of life does not have to decline. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 6

7 Getting Older Is Hard Work! Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 7

8 Integumentary System  The skin loses its elasticity, strength, and fatty tissue layer.  Secretions from oil and sweat glands decrease- don’t need baths as often  Blood vessels are fragile-bruise easily  Brown spots appear on sun-exposed areas.  Loss of the skin’s fatty tissue layer affects body temperature-tend to be cold  Dry skin causes itching and skin is easily damaged-use mild soap and apply lotion Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 8

9 Skin Changes Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 9

10 Integumentary System  Nails become thick and tough.  Feet usually have poor circulation.  The skin has fewer nerve endings-less able to feel pain  White or gray hair is common.  Hair loss occurs in men.  Hair thins on men and women.  Facial hair may occur in women.  Hair is drier from decreases in scalp oils.  Skin disorders increase with age. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 10

11 Skin changes Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 11

12 Musculo-skeletal system  Muscle cells decrease in number.  Muscles atrophy (shrink) and decrease in strength.  Bones lose minerals, especially calcium.  Bones lose strength, become brittle, and break easily.  Vertebrae shorten.  Joints become stiff and painful.  Mobility decreases.  Activity, exercise, and diet help prevent bone loss and loss of muscle strength. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 12

13 Musculo-skeletal system Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 13

14 Nervous System  Nerve cells are lost.  Nerve conduction and reflexes slow.  Blood flow to the brain is reduced.  Changes occur in brain cells.  Sleep patterns change.  Touch and sensitivity to pain and pressure are reduced.  Taste and smell dull. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 14

15 Eye Changes  Blue and green colors are hard to see  Eyelids thin and wrinkle.  Tear secretion is less.  Blue and Green colors are difficult to see  The pupil becomes smaller and responds less to light.  Clear vision is reduced.  The lens of the eye yellows.  Older persons become more farsighted- unable to see close items Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 15

16 Eye changes Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 16

17 Ear changes  Changes occur in the acoustic nerve.  Eardrums atrophy-high pitched sounds are hard to hear  Wax secretion decreases.  Wax becomes harder and thicker. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 17

18 Circulatory System  The heart muscle weakens.  Arteries narrow and are less elastic.  Sometimes circulatory changes are severe. Rest is needed during the day. Overexertion is avoided. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 18

19 Respiratory System  Respiratory muscles weaken.  Lung tissue becomes less elastic.  The person may lack strength to cough and clear the airway of secretions. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 19

20 Digestive System  Salivary glands produce less saliva. Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) is a risk.  Taste and smell dull.  Secretion of digestive juices decreases.  Loss of teeth and ill-fitting dentures cause chewing problems.  Peristalsis decreases.  Fewer calories are needed. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 20

21 Urinary System  Kidney function decreases.  The kidneys atrophy.  Blood flow to the kidneys is reduced.  The ureters, bladder, and urethra lose tone and elasticity.  Bladder muscles weaken-incontinence occurs  Bladder size decreases.  In men, the prostate gland enlarges.  Urinary tract infections are risks. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 21

22 Men Reproductive System  In men, the hormone testosterone decreases slightly. It affects strength, sperm production, and reproductive tissues. An erection takes longer. The phase between erection and orgasm is longer. Orgasm is less forceful than when younger. Erections are lost quickly. The time between erections is longer. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 22

23 Women Reproduction  Menopause occurs in women.  Menstruation stops.  The woman can no longer have children.  Female hormones (estrogen and progesterone) decrease.  The uterus, vagina, and genitalia atrophy.  Vaginal walls thin and there is vaginal dryness.  Arousal takes longer.  Orgasm is less intense.  The pre-excitement state returns more quickly. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 23

24 What is it like to get old? Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 24


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