Presentation on theme: "Introduction Compatibility of IPM practices with other nursery management practices and prevailing ecological and socioeconomic conditions are necessary."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction Compatibility of IPM practices with other nursery management practices and prevailing ecological and socioeconomic conditions are necessary for its effective adoption. Main goal of the IPM is to reduce crop losses caused by pests with minimum financial investment and environmental losses. Potato tuber moths, aphids, thrips, leaf hoppers, flea beetles, cutworms, mites, leaf miners, whiteflies are some of the pests found in True potato seed nursery.
Aphid (Myzus persicae) Symptoms Aphid colonies visible on the underside of leaves. Leaves look faded and shriveled due to loss of cell sap. Identification Aphids are small (1-2 mm), soft and usually green in colour. Aphids suck the sap and weaken the plant; Aphids secrets sugary substance which favor black fungal growth on leaves. Aphids act vectors and transmit plant viral diseases to other plants.
Winged Green colored Aphids on leaf Wingless Green colored Aphid colony Aphid (Myzus persicae)
Control Naturally occurring insect predators such as beetles and wasp feed on aphids. Fungi such as Entomophthora species controls Aphids population. Spraying at the rate of 30 ml of Metasystox (Methyl demeton) 25 EC or 20 ml of Rogar (Dimethoate) 30 EC or 7.5 ml of Dimecron (phosphamidon) 85 SL in 10 liters of water can control aphid population.
Thrips (Frankliniella species.) Symptoms Thrips infestation causes silver spots on the leaves. Leaves dry up, plant weakens and yields drop down significantly. Pale to brown color nymphs and dark colored adults of thrips are observed on the underside of leaves. Identification Thrips are thin, minute insects (1-2 mm long) that feed on cells on underside of leaves. Severe thrips attacks may cause wilting of plants. Thrips also transmit Tomato Spindle Wilt Virus (TSWV).
Pale or brown colored nymphs of Thrips Control Adequate quantity of irrigation can be an effective control method. Spray the crop plants with of 0.02%Phosphamidon or 0.03% Dimethoate or Methyl Demeton orThiometon to controls the pest effectively. Thrips (Frankliniella species)
Leaf hoppers (Empoasca species.) Identification Leafhoppers are small in size (3mm long), highly mobile, mostly found underside of the leaves and widely distributed in croplands. Symptoms: Leaf hoppers feed on plant cell sap and weaken the plant. Leaf hoppers introduce toxins in the plant tissues and damage the plant. Leafhoppers burn leaf edges with top leaf roll and foliar yellowing and plants may die prematurely. Some species of leaf hopper transmit mycoplasma like diseases such as Aster Yellows and Witches Broom disease.
Leafhoppers (Empoasca species.) Control Use leaf hopper resistant or tolerant varieties and trap crops like beans. Spray insecticides @ 30 ml Rogor (Dimethoate) or Metasystox (Methyl Demeton) or 7.5 ml of Dimecron (Phosphomidon) in 10 liters of water and If necessary repeat the spray after 10 days. Potato Leaf hopper
Cutworms (Agrotis species) Identification Cutworms are robust and grayish colored larvae 5 cm in length. Cutworm larvae remain buried at the base of the plant during daytime and feed on stem and root during night time. Prominent spots and line are seen on the back of cutworm larvae. Nature of Damage Cutworm larvae cut the stems of young plants causing lodging of seedlings. Some cutworm species feed on the leaves.
Control. Toxic baits prepared by mixing insecticide with cereal bran, molasses and water should be placed at the base of plants. Use Carbaryl poison baits 5% @ 10 to 15kg / acre Soil application of chlordane or Heptachlor dust @ 50kg / ha found very effective against the cutworm pest. Cutworms (Agrotis species) Cutworms on Potato Plant
Flea Beetles (Epitrix species) Identification Flea beetles are small in size, 2-3 mm long, black in color, jump easily in the foliage of plants. The white colored thin larvae have short legs on the thorax measure up to 4 mm in length. Nature of Damage Flea beetle bore less than 3 mm in diameter circular holes on the leaves. Severe damage cause drying up of leaves, badly affecting photosynthesis, plant growth and crop yield.
Control Spraying of Bacillus thuriengensis as a bio-control agent formulation is very effective. Soil application of Neem, Mahua, groundnut cakes are effective in suppressing the pest population. Spraying of Malathion 50 EC @ 20 ml in 10 liters of water provides effective control. Flea Beetles (Epitrix spp.) Flea Beetles on Potato Leaf
Mites (Tetranychus species) Identification Mites are generally known as red spiders but are not always in red color. Mites are extremely small, almost microscopic in size. Nature of Damage Mites feed on the cellular matter of leaves leading to chlorotic spots on leaves and tan coloring. High infestation mites cause wilting of leaf and plant. White mite, attacks young sprouts and tender leaves, deforming them. Damage to growing plants is particularly severe. Control Use of acaricides, dry climatic conditions and less irrigation destroy and mange the mite infestation.
Leaf miner (Liriomyza huidobrensis) Identification Small larvae of Leaf miners are up to 2.5 mm long and do not have heads or legs. Larvae pupate on underside of the leaves and then fall to ground. Nature of Damage Leaf miners are a serious pest of potato. Larvae bore tunnels inside the leaves, leaves dry up and eventually lead to plant death. Control Keep Sanitation in nursery and burn affected plants. Spray @ Nuvan 1 ml/lit or Acephate 1.5 g/lit or Cypermethrin 0.5 ml/lit.
White fly (Bemisia tabaci) Identification White fly adults are small insects with light yellow powdery bodies, 1.0 to1.5 mm long, pure white wings and prominent long legs. Eggs are smooth, sub elliptical, light yellow, when freshly laid, turn dark brown later. Nature and symptoms of damage Nymphs suck sap from the leaves where sooty mould develops and growth of plants is stunted. Control measures Spray @ 30 ml of Rogor 30 EC (Dimethoate) or Metasystox 25 EC (Methyl-Demeton) or 7.5 ml of Dimecran 85 SL ( Phosphamidon) in 10 liters of water.