Presentation on theme: "La plaza de toros en Málaga. Bullfighting (la corrida) is a tradition that involves professional performers, toreros or matadors, who execute various."— Presentation transcript:
Bullfighting (la corrida) is a tradition that involves professional performers, toreros or matadors, who execute various formal moves with the goal of appearing graceful and confident, while masterful over the bull itself.bull These manoeuvres are performed at close range, concluding with the deathdeath of the bull.
It is a ritual spectacle that is usually considered by insiders as an art or drama.ritualart drama The art of bullfighting requires a significant degree of skill and talent, resulting in the widely held view of matadors as national celebrities.
This controversial, but popular, spectacle is staged most famously in Spain (where there are over 400 arenas) but also in Portugal, some countries in Latin America, and in the south of France.controversialSpainPortugalLatin AmericaFrance
Especially prominent bullrings are to be found at Madrid (Las Ventas), Seville (La Maestranza), Nîmes (L'Arène), Lisbon (Campo Pequeno), and Mexico City (La Monumental) which has the largest bullring in the world, seating 55,000 people.bullringsMadridLas VentasSevilleLa MaestranzaNîmesL'Arène LisbonCampo PequenoMexico CityLa Monumental Around 30,000 bulls are killed each year in bullfights in Spain.
Spanish-style bullfighting is called corrida de toros. In a traditional corrida, three toreros, also called matadors, each fight two out of a total of six bulls, each of which is at least four years old and weighs up to about 600kg (with a minimum weight limit of 460 kg for the bullrings of the first degree).
Each matador has six assistants — two picadores ("lancers") mounted on horseback, three banderilleros, and a mozo de espada ("sword servant").
The corrida has three distinct parts or tercios, the start of each is announced with a trumpet sound. The participants first enter the arena to salute the presiding dignitary, el presidente. The ritual is a key factor, for example: The oldest matador goes to the far left, and the newest will be in the middle. If a matador is new in the Plaza, he will do the "paseíllo" without his hat on.trumpet
Next, the bull enters the ring to be tested for ferocity by the matador and banderilleros with pink and gold capes. In the first stage, the behaviour of the bull is observed by the matador by the way the bull behaves in the arena and how he attacks the capes. Then the matador goes and confronts his rival. If he performs with art and courage, he will be rewarded with an ovation. This initial section is called suerte de capote ("act of cape").
Then two picadores enter the arena, armed with lances. Each is mounted on a heavily armoured and blindfolded horse of extremely large stature.horse The bull is encouraged to attack the horses, which are well protected by their armour and generally treat the attack with stoic patience.
The picadores stab the bull with their lances to weaken it, often leading to a considerable loss of blood on the part of the bull. The idea is to weaken the bull, making it possible for a matador on foot at the end of the bullfight to attempt to stab the bull with a sword between the shoulder blades. The audience often objects to excessive use of the lance, as this is seen as making the fight too one-sided.
In the next stage, three banderilleros each attempt to plant two coloured, pointed sticks (banderillas, literally "little flags") on the bull's flanks. These further weaken the enormous ridges of neck and shoulder muscle which set fighting bulls apart from ordinary cattle, through loss of blood, while also frequently spurring the bull into making more ferocious charges.
In the final stage, the tercio de muerte, the matador re-enters the ring alone with a small red cape or muleta in one hand and a sword in the other. He uses his cape to attract the bull in a series of passes, both demonstrating his control over it and risking his life by getting especially close to it. The red colour of the cape is a matter of tradition, as bulls are actually colour blind.colour blind
There are a number of distinct styles of pass, each with its own name. For instance, the verónica is a pass in which the matador slowly swings the cape away from the charging bull while keeping his feet in the same position.verónica
The faena is the final series of passes before the kill, in which the matador with a muleta attempts to manoeuvre the bull into a position to stab it between the shoulder blades and through the heart.
The act of thrusting the sword (estocada), requires particular skills. The matador must begin the estocada fifteen minutes after the first muleta pass, at most. If he exceeds this limited time, the presidente will give an order to have the bull returned to its pen.
A clumsy estocada that fails to give a "quick and clean death" will often raise loud protests from the crowd. If estocada is not successful the matador must then cut the bull's spinal cord with a second sword called verdugo, to kill it instantly and spare the animal pain. Although the matador's final blow is usually fatal, it may take the bull some time to die.spinal cord
Very rarely, a bull will be allowed to survive a fight as an indulgence granted in recognition of an exceptional performance. The spectators will demand an indulto from the presidente, by waving handkerchiefs, before the estocada. The matador will stop and look at the presidente. If he stands still, he will resume his action and kill the bull. But if he has an orange handkerchief hung on his balcony the bull will be "freed"..
Such bulls are generally retired from competition and raised as studs, as their experience in the ring makes them extremely dangerous opponents.
Many supporters of bullfighting regard it as an integral part of their national cultures. Bullfighting is an interaction of the man and the bull. Rather than a competitive sport, the bullfight is more of a ritual which is judged according to artistic impression and skill.
The American writer, Ernest Hemingway wrote in his 1932 book Death in the Afternoon:Ernest Hemingway Death in the Afternoon "Bullfighting is the only art in which the artist is in danger of death”
The bullfight is above all about the demonstration of style and courage. The bull is not viewed as a sacrificial victim — it is instead seen by the audience as a worthy contestant, deserving of respect in its own right. If a matador is particularly poor, the audience may shift its support to the bull and cheer it on instead.
The moment when the matador kills the bull is the most dangerous point of the entire fight, as it requires him to reach between the horns, head on, to deliver the blow. Matadors are at the greatest risk of suffering a goring at this point. Gorings are not uncommon and the results can be fatal. Many bullfighters have met their deaths on the horns of a bull, including one of the most celebrated of all time, Manolete, who was killed by a bull named Islero,ManoleteIslero
A very small number of women have been matadores, and they have experienced considerable resistance and hostility from fans and other matadores. Bullfighting is traditionally a male sport. Maria Paz Vega and Cristina Sanches Toreras
Bullfighting is a dance with death - one wrong move and the Matador could become impaled on the horns of the bull. It is the Matador's job to make this dance dramatic and enjoyable for the audience.