Presentation on theme: "The Thirty Years War 1618-48. Thirty Years War-- Wars of Religion in France and the Netherlands Both Compare and Contrast the Causes of the following."— Presentation transcript:
Thirty Years War-- Wars of Religion in France and the Netherlands Both Compare and Contrast the Causes of the following events:
HRE 1555 after the Peace of Augsburg. Relative peace compared to Western Europe. Rulers of HRE Ferdinand I Maximilian II Rudolf II Mathias don’t force religious issue even as Calvinism spreads among nobility and merchants. Focus is on defeating the Turks.
Sources of tension in the HRE: 1. Palatinate goes Calvinist in 1559 and within a generation several key states follow. Brandenburg Prussia goes in 1613. 2 electors now Calvinist. Protestant Union formed in 1609 2. Catholic Counter-Reformation Led by Bavaria, the Catholics rebound and begin to win back Converts. Jesuits key to this process as they set up schools. By 1608 the Augsburg truce is clearly over. Imperial Diet breaks down due to Prot. boycott. Balance of Power always at risk. Think Cold War getting warmer.
The Thirty Years War Get in your discussion groups and complete the following activity. Why did they fight?What did they gain? Bohemian Phase List key participants and motives. ex. Palatinate vs HRemperor and Spain + Bavaria and Saxony. Danish Phase Why Denmark? Swedish Phase Key participants and why? Franco/Swedish Phase Why did France join? Finally, does your group support the political or religious interpretation of the events? Justify your answer with evidence.
Spark: Ferdinand II becomes emperor of Austria (and then of the HRE in 1619.) Rabid Catholic, he instills fear in Bohemian nobles as he promises to stamp out Protestantism in his lands. Bohemian nobility had been Protestant for generations (think Huss) and did not want to be brought under the control of the emperor. political/religious issues mixed, but mostly a repudiation of Habsburg rule. SO 100 armed Bohemian nobles….
Defenestration of Prague” the event that starts the First Phase of the Thirty Years War. 1618
I. Bohemian Phase-1618-22 (Battle of White Mountain) Bohemian/German princes against Holy Roman Emperor to retain liberties/Calvinistic beliefs. Bohemians utterly defeated by Bavarian forces. Yet war continues… Mercenary captains continue the war for plunder (Manstein) vs. Bavaria. Protestant lands destroyed, Protestants killed by these marauders…so Enter the next phase II. Danish Phase…and beyod. Christian IV aids Protestants, funded by France, England to fight against Ferdinand II and his condotierri Wallenstein. Christian’s army crushed, but Manstein is on the loose. Frederick is broke, owes much to Maximilian, and has gotten little from war so…he allies himself with one of the more interesting characters in the conflict: Wallenstein.
Builds and army of 125,000, forages off land, gains a title and land from defeated Protestants, and drives Manstein out of the HRE. By 1629, Catholics are in charge, Protestant princes humbled. Ferdinand feels secure to unilaterally declare the EDICT OF RESTITUTION, HIS SON HEIR OF HIS TITLE, AND IMPERIAL HELP FOR SPAIN IN WAR AGAINST DUTCH. EFFECT:
III. Swedish Phase-Wallenstein relieved of duty by Ferdinand II, then Ferdinand is attacked by Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus. Swedes hammer the Imperial forces at Bretenfield and Lutzen (GA killed). Imperial forces regroup under Wallenstein and hammer Swedes at Nordlinger. Swedes on the ropes, but then French and England come to the assistance which begins the most destructive phase. IV. French/Swedish Phase (1634-48) French, Swedes, Dutch, Germans vs. Imperial forces, Spain, Germans. Fighting in Spain, France, Italy, Germany. Incredibly destructive as armies are mercenary armies, loot the land, forage for food, pillage towns. Mercenary armies pillage, loot, rape, and destroy central Germany rather than fight one another. Exhaustion sets in by 1644. Treaty process begins in earnest, although war drags on for four more years.
Horrible memories of war are told thru the generations… Schedentrunk or “Swedish Drink” aka Water torture. Folk stories throughout central and southern Germany recall this horrible method of death spread by the forces of Sweden and then adopted by other mercenary captains.
Why did they fight? Imperial ForcesAllies HabsburgsPalatinate-Protestantism, lands Austria-control of empire, catholicismBohemians-constitutional liberties Spain-connect Spanish road, ie land. and Protestant faith under fire. and later to defeat France.Danes-Protestantism, and lands in Bavaria-expand territories, Catholicism. the H.R.E. along Baltic coast. Papacy-Catholicism, expand influenceSwedes-Protestantism, lands along Baltic Coast. Mercenary captainsDutch-protect independence after Manstein collapse of 12 Years Truce. WallensteinEnglish-Protestantism, expand Both fight for titles, riches, glory. influence, weaken Spain. France-weaken Habsburgs in Austria/Spain, gain lands along the Rhine. German States like Saxony, Brandenburg and others. Looking for local advantages-expand borders, weaken enemy, etc. Germans tired of war and mostly out of the fighting by 1635.