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Attitudes toward Natural Catastrophe and its Aftermaths: The Role of Identity and Intergroup Relations Ying-yi Hong Nanyang Business School Workshop on.

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Presentation on theme: "Attitudes toward Natural Catastrophe and its Aftermaths: The Role of Identity and Intergroup Relations Ying-yi Hong Nanyang Business School Workshop on."— Presentation transcript:

1 Attitudes toward Natural Catastrophe and its Aftermaths: The Role of Identity and Intergroup Relations Ying-yi Hong Nanyang Business School Workshop on Socio-Economic Factors of Natural Catastrophe, Feb.21 st, 2013, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

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3 Sufferings, Chaos, and Uncertainty

4 Why did this happen? Looking for meaning -- a natural psychological tendency.

5 Who should be blamed for the disaster? Unfortunately, sometimes people blame the victims!

6 Two examples 1.2005 Hurricane Katrina – White Americans blamed the Black victims; 2.2011 Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami – Mainland Chinese showed less empathy than did Americans. Identity and intergroup relations play an important role

7 Example 1: 2005 Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans, USA. Dach-Gruschow, K & Hong, Y. (2006). The Racial Divide in Response to the Aftermath of Katrina: A Boundary Condition for Common Ingroup Identity Model. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 6(1), 125-141.

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9 USA Today/CNN GALLUP polls conducted shortly after the Katrina disaster revealed a striking racial divide: 27% of Whites felt the residents of New Orleans deserved most of the blame for the Katrina disaster, whereas 11% of Blacks felt the same; 60% of Blacks felt that the slow response after Hurricane Katrina was related to the majority of victims being Black; only 12% of Whites felt the same; 37% of Blacks felt that President George W. Bush deserved the most blame for the Katrina disaster versus 15% of Whites felt so.

10 George Bush gave a speech to rally all Americans to cope with the aftermaths of Hurricane Katrina. He largely avoided any mention of race, instead promoting the unity of all Americans behind the common goal of helping the victims. However, it did not work! Why?

11 American identity (national identity) White American (racial identity) African American (racial identity) George Bush’s strategy is consistent with Common Ingroup Identity Theory

12 For the national group = the dominant racial group, identification with the national group would become an exclusive identity instead of inclusive identity; identification with the national identity would result in more prejudice toward the minority group than identification with the racial identity. American=White (national identity) White American (racial identity) African American (racial identity) Our Model: Hegemonic Identity (American=White)

13 Hypothesis testing Priming White American participants with National identity (American) vs. racial identity (White/European American)  High vs. low outgroup prejudice This study was conducted about 2 weeks after Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans.

14 Manipulation -- Identity Priming American society is facing a lot of problems nowadays. Domestically, America faces problems of unemployment, crimes in the inner cities, and terrorism on the American soil. Internationally, America faces problems of negotiating with the Islamic countries and economic commitment to various nations. We would be interested in knowing your thoughts about how Americans, such as yourself, how your ethnic group (European-American) differ from other ethnic groups and how your ethnic group can contribute uniquely to how your ethnic group (White-American) differ from other ethnic groups and how your ethnic group can contribute uniquely to resolve this issue. (N=144; randomly assigned into the 3 conditions)

15 Dependent Measures To what extent should the victims deserve blame on the devastation and sufferings of Katrina. To what extent do you think racism contributes to the slow response in the aftermath of Katrina. Regional authorities blame Federal authorities blame 15

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17 National identity Ethnic identity Prejudice activate reduce Hegemonic National identity Implications: Emphazing the national identity may not always work! increase

18 Example 2: 2011 Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami at Fukushima, Japan. Yang, Y., Liu, X., Fong, Y., & Hong, Y. (3 rd R&R). Unresolved World War II Animosity Dampens Empathy toward 2011 Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.

19 2011 Japanese Earthquke and Tsunami

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22 Blog posting on Bao Du “ 日本的地震是天灾,并不是人祸。我只能说是 报应!当年的侵华战争确实人祸。是可以避免的 。就是是过去式又怎样?那是的确发生过的!死 去的是我们的国人。 … 只是民族的仇恨让我们 无法赋予同情。 … 虽然我不是在抗战的年代出 身 …” The Japanese earthquake is retribution…the national hatred do not allow us to empathize or sympathize. Although I was not born in the times of WWII, the number of my fellow victims from the war makes it unforgivable.

23 Three online surveys in China and US (Yang, Liu, Fang, & Hong, 3 rd R&R)

24 Theoretical Model (Yang, Liu, Fang, & Hong, 2012) Historical conflicts (resolved vs. unresolved) Shared historical representations Intergroup emotion National identity Love for one’s nation (patriotism) strengthen Global identity weaken

25 Empathy “As you watch the Japanese disaster unfolding, to what extent do you have the following feelings?” “empathy,” “sympathy,” “pain for these people,” “sad,” “heartbreaking,” and “sorrow”

26 Empathy toward 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami vs. 2011 Japanese Tsunami

27 Why?

28 Free association of Japan “When you think of Japan as a nation, what comes to your mind right away?”

29 Representation of Japanese WWII invasion as mediator NationEmpathy Retribution/Japa nese invasion in WWII (a) (c)  (c)’ (b) (a)  = 1.31**, 1.01**,.28** (b)  = -.23*, -.22*, -.67* (c)  = -1.14**, -.97**, -1.0** (c)’  = -.84**, -.75**, -.82** Sobel Z: -2.84**, -2.17*, -1.99*

30 Theoretical Model (Yang, Liu, Fang, & Hong, 2012) Historical conflicts (resolved vs. unresolved) Shared historical representations Intergroup emotion National identity Love for one’s nation (patriotism) strengthen Global identity weaken

31 Identity and Patriotism National identity condition –“Chinese [American] society is facing a lot of challenges internationally nowadays… We would be interested in knowing your thoughts about how people in China [America] can be united to build a stronger country in order to compete better with other nations. Start your essay with “We as Chinese [American]…”” Global identity condition –“The world is facing a lot of challenges nowadays. There are more extreme weather conditions in many places in recent years... We would be interested in knowing your thoughts about how people all over the world can be united to build a better world. Start your essay with “We as global citizens…”” Patriotism: 12-item patriotism scale (Kosterman & Feshbach, 1989) “I love my country” and “When I see the Chinese [American] flag flying, I feel great”.

32 Empathy toward Japanese disaster

33 Retribution

34 Conclusion Unresolved historical animosity affects contemporary intergroup relations. Natural catastrophes can aggravate conflicts between groups. These intergroup processes can defy popular theories or the natural tendency to empathize with the victims. Policy makers need to be aware.

35 Thank You! The two papers can be downloaded at: http://www.nanyangbusinessschool.ntu.edu.sg/general/ying- yi/index.html (type “ying-yi hong” on Google)

36 Additional Slides

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