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C OERCING, C ONSTRAINING AND S IGNALING E XPLORING THE P URPOSES OF T ARGETED S ANCTIONS Francesco Giumelli Senior Lecturer Metropolitan University Prague.

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Presentation on theme: "C OERCING, C ONSTRAINING AND S IGNALING E XPLORING THE P URPOSES OF T ARGETED S ANCTIONS Francesco Giumelli Senior Lecturer Metropolitan University Prague."— Presentation transcript:

1 C OERCING, C ONSTRAINING AND S IGNALING E XPLORING THE P URPOSES OF T ARGETED S ANCTIONS Francesco Giumelli Senior Lecturer Metropolitan University Prague email: francescogiumelli@gmail.com Presentation Prepared for WORKSHOP: How are Targeted Sanctions Supposed to Work (both in theory and in practice)? Geneva, Switzerland, 1-3 October 2009

2 Measuring the Success of Sanctions – Geneva, 2 October 2009 The Problem  The focus of the study: Do sanctions work?  The answer…  It depends!!  The argument 1.Mono Vs. Multiple-Purpose Approach  Coercion, Constraint and Signal 2.Causal Complexity Approach  Sanctions as only one tool among many  A definition of success Sanctions can only contribute to a policy goal through the achievement of their purpose

3 Measuring the Success of Sanctions – Geneva, 2 October 2009 A synoptic table for statecraft Table 1 – A Synoptic Table of Statecraft in Foreign Policy Domains (Baldwin, 1985) Methods, Mode, Techniques (Haas, 1974; Art, 1980) Tools, means, instruments, levers Purpose (Art, 1980) Scope (Lasswell & Kaplan, 1950) Ends, aims, objectives, goals Targets (primary and secondary) (Baldwin, 1999/2000) CooperativeNoncooperative STATECRAFT PropagandaPeacefulStatements To signal To support To cooperate To signal To constrain To coerce Milieu Possession Survival (Wolfer, 1962) Individuals Entities Domestic Audience States International organizations International Audiences DiplomacyIncentives Diplomatic advantages Economic aids Etc Economic statecraft Sanctions Financial Restrictions Travel Bans Arms Embargo Commodity Boycotts Military statecraftViolence Strategic bombing Invasion Etc

4 Measuring the Success of Sanctions – Geneva, 2 October 2009 A Taxonomy of Sanctions  What is a sanction? Politically motivated penalty  Success? Degree of achievement of its purpose  What are the purposes of sanctions? To coerce: Make the target do something To constrain: Prevent the target from doing something To signal: Signal an audience

5 Measuring the Success of Sanctions – Geneva, 2 October 2009 A Taxonomy of Sanctions (2) Classificatory Typology of Sanctions Feasibility HighLow Enforcement HighCoercionConstrain LowSignal

6 Measuring the Success of Sanctions – Geneva, 2 October 2009 What defines the purpose?  Feasibility: the acceptability of the senders’ demand by the target Practicality: can the demand be met? Preciseness: does the target know what to do?  Enforcement: the attempt to make a target obey certain decisions Implementation: is the sanction implemented? Monitoring: is the sanction monitored?

7 Measuring the Success of Sanctions – Geneva, 2 October 2009 Talking about success  Coercion To change the behavior of the target To make one policy option more appealing to the target  Constrain To prevent the target from doing smthg To weaken the target’s abilities To attach a cost to political misconducts  Signal The message is sent and delivered

8 Measuring the Success of Sanctions – Geneva, 2 October 2009 The Conclusions  Do sanctions work? It depends!  Sanctions can only contribute to strategies by Coercing, constraining and signaling  The taxonomy of sanctions establishes that Sanctions are not all alike Success assessed according to purpose Comparisons are to be done for similar cases

9 Measuring the Success of Sanctions – Geneva, 2 October 2009 Thank you for your attention! For comments and suggestions, please write to francescogiumelli@gmail.com


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