Presentation on theme: "12345 The germ theory of disease states that infectious diseases are caused by 1.toxins. 2.microorganisms. 3.heredity. 4.materials in the environment."— Presentation transcript:
12345 The germ theory of disease states that infectious diseases are caused by 1.toxins. 2.microorganisms. 3.heredity. 4.materials in the environment.
12345 Diseases are caused by 1.pathogens. 2.cigarette smoke. 3.fungi. 4.all of the above
12345 An infectious disease is one that is caused by 1.heredity. 2.materials in the environment. 3.pathogens. 4.hemophilia.
12345 Which of the following is NOT a step in identifying the pathogen that causes a specific disease? 1.The pathogen should be found in the body of a healthy organism. 2.The pathogen should be isolated and grown in a pure culture. 3.The purified pathogens should cause the same disease in a new host. 4.The pathogen should be isolated from the second host.
12345 How are infectious diseases spread? 1.through coughing, sneezing, or physical contact 2.through contaminated water and food 3.by infected animals 4.all of the above
12345 An example of an infectious disease that is caused by a virus is 1.athlete’s foot. 2.tuberculosis. 3.influenza (the flu). 4.tetanus.
12345 Which of the following is an example of a vector and the disease it spreads? 1.tall grass and Lyme disease 2.the deer tick and Lyme disease 3.the Nile river and West Nile disease 4.insecticides and malaria
12345 How can you prevent the spread of Lyme disease? 1.Wash your hands frequently. 2.Avoid sexual contact. 3.Avoid tall grasses and wooded areas. 4.Cover your mouth with a tissue when you cough.
12345 Each of the following is an infectious disease EXCEPT 1.AIDS. 2.chicken pox. 3.influenza. 4.cancer.
12345 Antibiotics fight infections by 1.preventing viruses from replicating. 2.killing bacteria. 3.killing infected cells. 4.growing green mold that inhibits bacterial growth.
12345 Which of the following is a mechanism that some antiviral drugs use to fight viruses? 1.interfering with the ability of viruses to invade cells and multiply once inside of them 2.increasing protein synthesis on ribosomes 3.killing both bacterial and human cells 4.none of the above
12345 Compounds that kill bacterial cells without harming the cells of humans or other animals are called 1.antiviral drugs. 2.insecticides. 3.antibiotics. 4.carcinogens.
12345 One advantage of a fever is that it can slow down the 1.activities of white blood cells. 2.rate of chemical reactions. 3.growth of pathogens. 4.body’s recovery from infection.
12345 The body’s nonspecific defenses against invading pathogens include 1.antibiotics. 2.mucus, sweat, and tears. 3.antibodies. 4.killer T cells.
12345 The inflammatory response can cause 1.permanent immunity. 2.pain, swelling, and fever. 3.antibodies to bind to antigens. 4.killer T cells to attack infected cells.
12345 The body’s most important nonspecific defense is 1.the skin. 2.cell-mediated immunity. 3.the inflammatory response. 4.permanent immunity.
12345 If the skin is cut or broken, an infection can result from microorganisms 1.in the air. 2.on the skin. 3.in the blood. 4.in the mucus.
12345 Unlike passive immunity, in active immunity antibodies are produced by 1.the mother of an infant. 2.your own body. 3.other animals. 4.an autoimmune disease.
12345 When a person receives a vaccine, his or her body 1.receives antibodies against a specific pathogen. 2.creates plasma cells that can produce antibodies against the specific pathogen. 3.creates antigens to fight the specific pathogen. 4.immediately begins fighting the infection caused by the pathogens.
12345 Humoral immunity is carried out by 1.killer T cells. 2.lymphocytes. 3.antibodies. 4.macrophages.
12345 If a person has memory B cells against a certain pathogen, the person is 1.likely to develop that disease. 2.much less likely to develop the disease a second time. 3.able to spread the disease to others through physical contact. 4.probably still sick with the disease.
12345 A person who has received a vaccine against polio 1.is able to produce antibodies against polio. 2.is more susceptible to the polio virus than someone who has not had the vaccine. 3.has polio antibodies in the bloodstream. 4.has antipolio killer T cells in the bloodstream.
12345 An immune response is triggered by a(an) 1.antibiotic. 2.antibody. 3.antigen. 4.histamine.
12345 Asthma is an example of 1.the immune system attacking its own body cells. 2.the immune system overreacting to an antigen. 3.an autoimmune disease. 4.an infection.
12345 The sneezing, runny nose, and itchy eyes associated with allergies are caused when 1.smooth muscles reduce the size of air passageways in the lungs. 2.the immune system attacks the body’s own cells. 3.mast cells release histamines. 4.infected cells produce interferon.
12345 What happens when a person who is allergic to ragweed encounters ragweed? 1.Ragweed antigens bind to mast cells, which release histamines. 2.Ragweed antibodies attack the immune system. 3.Mast cells release antihistamines into the bloodstream. 4.The cells of the immune system become weakened.
12345 The symptoms of allergies include 1.runny nose and a fever. 2.sneezing, runny nose, and watery eyes. 3.unusual infections of the lungs, mouth, throat, and skin. 4.formation of a tumor.
12345 What causes asthma? 1.Particular antigens trigger mast cells to release histamines. 2.Particular antigens trigger muscle contractions that make it difficult to breathe. 3.Antibodies and killer T cells attack cells in the tissues of the lungs. 4.Antibodies and killer T cells attack cells in the lining of the heart.
12345 An example of an autoimmune disease is 1.asthma. 2.allergies. 3.multiple sclerosis. 4.strep throat.
12345 Autoimmune diseases result when the immune system 1.fails to distinguish self from nonself. 2.overreacts to certain antigens. 3.is weakened by asthma. 4.all of the above
12345 Antibodies attack neuromuscular junctions in 1.rheumatoid arthritis. 2.myasthenia gravis. 3.multiple sclerosis. 4.Type I diabetes.
12345 All of the following are ways that HIV can be spread EXCEPT 1.sharing needles for intravenous drug use. 2.tending to another person’s bleeding wound when you have a cut on your hand. 3.using another person’s hairbrush. 4.having sex without a condom.
12345 Doctors first suspected that AIDS was weakening the immune system of infected patients when their patients developed 1.asthma. 2.allergies. 3.rare infections. 4.strep throat.
12345 HIV weakens the immune system by killing 1.antibodies. 2.B cells. 3.helper T cells. 4.killer T cells.
12345 HIV spreads through the body by 1.replicating inside the cells of the immune system. 2.preventing the body from producing antibodies against HIV. 3.causing the body to have asthma attacks. 4.strengthening the immune system.
12345 Which of the following presents a risk of spreading HIV? 1.abstaining from sex 2.giving blood 3.kissing someone on the cheek 4.using a contaminated needle to receive an injection
12345 Factors that affect air quality include 1.carbon monoxide. 2.ozone. 3.airborne particulates. 4.all of the above
12345 Lead pollution is no longer a serious problem because 1.lead particulates are not easily inhaled. 2.leaded gasoline was replaced with unleaded gasoline. 3.lead particulates are washed into rivers and streams. 4.asbestos is now used instead of lead.
12345 Cancer cells affect other cells in the body by 1.taking in nutrients needed by other cells. 2.increasing nerve connections. 3.forming benign tumors throughout the body. 4.all of the above
12345 Cancer can be caused by 1.bacteria. 2.asthma. 3.radiation. 4.allergies.
12345 A benign tumor is one that 1.is cancerous. 2.has undergone metastasis. 3.does not spread to other parts of the body. 4.does not divide uncontrollably.
12345 Radiation and cigarette smoke both 1.cause mutations in DNA. 2.are carcinogens. 3.cause nausea, headaches, and hair loss. 4.destroy fast-growing cancer cells.
12345 Healthful behaviors include 1.eating a healthful diet. 2.getting plenty of exercise. 3.getting regular checkups. 4.all of the above
12345 Eating foods that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol may help prevent 1.cancer. 2.bacterial diseases. 3.obesity. 4.STDs.
12345 Regular excercise is important because it 1.suppresses the immune system. 2.helps prevent heart disease. 3.reduce the risk of getting an STD. 4.helps prevent cancer.
12345 Koch’s postulates would not be an effective method of determining the cause of hemophilia. _________________________ 1.True 2.False
12345 Washing your hands frequently can prevent the spread of many vectors. _________________________ 1.True 2.False
12345 The protists that cause Chagas disease are spread by insects called assassin bugs. These assassin bugs are pathogens for Chagas disease. _________________________ 1.True 2.False
12345 Antibiotics are an effective treatment for a viral disease such as measles. _________________________ 1.True 2.False
12345 Lysozyme, an enzyme that breaks down the cell walls of bacteria, is a part of the body’s specific defenses. _________________________ 1.True 2.False
12345 The immune response is triggered by antibodies. _________________________ 1.True 2.False
12345 Cell-mediated immunity is carried out by lymphocytes. _________________________ 1.True 2.False
12345 Histamines can reduce the symptoms of an allergic reaction. _________________________ 1.True 2.False
12345 Injecting specific allergens into the body of a person with allergies can improve the allergic symptoms over time. This treatment serves to make the immune system more sensitive to the allergens. _________________________ 1.True 2.False
12345 When the immune system makes a mistake and attacks the body’s own cells, it produces an allergic reaction. ______________________________ 1.True 2.False
12345 Autoimmune diseases can be treated. _________________________ 1.True 2.False
12345 Over a period of years, HIV kills most of a person’s B cells. _________________________ 1.True 2.False
12345 Benign tumors are not cancerous. _________________________ 1.True 2.False
12345 A risk factor is anything that increases the chance of disease or injury. _________________________ 1.True 2.False
12345 The only way to absolutely prevent exposure to STDs is abstinence. _________________________ 1.True 2.False
0 of 5 12345 A ____________________ is any disease-causing organism.
0 of 5 12345 Chickenpox, tetanus, and malaria are all examples of ____________________ diseases.
0 of 5 12345 Mosquitoes that carry disease-causing organisms from person to person are called ____________________.
0 of 5 12345 Antibiotics are used to treat infectious diseases caused by ____________________.
0 of 5 12345 ____________________ are effective at treating strep throat, but not at treating the flu.
0 of 5 12345 Any opening in the skin is a potential entrance for ____________________.
0 of 5 12345 The distinction between specific and nonspecific immune defenses is whether the defense targets ____________________ pathogens or all pathogens.
0 of 5 12345 A ____________________ T cell activates other T cells and B cells, whereas a killer T cell binds to infected cells.
0 of 5 12345 Killer T cells attack pathogens in ____________________ immunity.
0 of 5 12345 During an allergy attack, antigens bind to ____________________, which release ____________________.
0 of 5 12345 Lupus erythematosus occurs when the immune system attacks the connective tissues of the body. This is an example of a(an) _________________________ disease.
0 of 5 12345 A person who has ____________________ is likely to suffer from a number of other rare infections because this virus attacks the immune system.
0 of 5 12345 Unlike a benign tumor, a(an) ____________________ tumor is likely to ____________________ surrounding healthy tissue.
0 of 5 12345 ____________________ is the intentional use of biological agents to disable or kill individuals.
0 of 5 12345 Eating foods that are low in saturated fat and ____________________ may help prevent obesity.
0 of 5 12345 What are three causes of disease?
0 of 5 12345 Why do you think blood is tested before it is given to another person?
0 of 5 12345 Acyclovir is sometimes used to treat chickenpox and mononucleosis. This drug works by inhibiting the synthesis of viral DNA. Can acyclovir be considered an antibiotic? Why or why not?
0 of 5 12345 What are antibiotics?
0 of 5 12345 What role do interferons play in the immune system? Are they effective against all pathogens?
0 of 5 12345 How does the skin act as a nonspecific defense against pathogens?
0 of 5 12345 Measles (rubeola) and German measles (rubella) are caused by different viruses. If you have recovered from rubeola, are you protected against infection with rubella? Why or why not?
0 of 5 12345 How do allergies occur?
0 of 5 12345 Describe the mechanism that causes allergies.
0 of 5 12345 What causes autoimmune diseases?
0 of 5 12345 Zidovudine (AZT) is a drug that inhibits the enzyme HIV needs to multiply. What effect would you expect AZT to have on the number of T cells in an HIV-infected person’s blood and immune system overall?
0 of 5 12345 What effects does HIV have on the immune system?
0 of 5 12345 What is the difference between a benign tumor and a malignant tumor?
0 of 5 12345 List four behaviors that will help maintain your overall health.
0 of 5 12345 Describe three air quality factors that can be risk factors for health problems.
0 of 5 12345 Identify three main causes of disease. Give an example of a disease caused by each factor you discuss.
0 of 5 12345 Rabies is a serious, and often fatal, viral infection that affects mainly wild mammals. Most humans who contract rabies get it from the bite of an infected dog. In the United States, all pet dogs are required to have a rabies vaccination each year because any wild mammal can potentially transmit the virus to a dog. Based on this information, identify the vectors for rabies transmission to humans and to dogs. Also, describe measures that can be taken to prevent the spread of rabies.
0 of 5 12345 Many bacteria can be divided into two groups based on the structure and chemical composition of their cell wall. Gram-positive bacteria have a simpler cell wall than Gram- negative bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria have an outer membrane in the cell wall and are more resistant to antibiotics. Based on what you know about how antibiotics fight bacteria, explain why antibiotics are less effective against Gram-negative bacteria.
0 of 5 12345 Describe the inflammatory response in terms of a wound.
0 of 5 12345 Describe active and passive immunity and explain how an individual develops each type.
0 of 5 12345 Over the last 30 years, the number of people afflicted with asthma has increased greatly. Some researchers claim that their studies show a link between asthma and air pollution. Other researchers say that the evidence is not clear. Based on what you’ve learned about asthma, do you think it’s possible that air pollution could cause asthma or make it worse? How could you test your hypothesis? Explain your answer
0 of 5 12345 Before a person receives an organ from another person, he or she is first given very strong drugs to weaken the immune system. Otherwise, the immune system will attack the new organ. What causes the attack? Is this a form of autoimmune disease? Why or why not?
0 of 5 12345 When a person is first infected with HIV, the body produces many antibodies against HIV and the number of viruses in the blood decreases significantly. Although the antibody level remains high, the number of viruses in the blood increases over time and the number of T cells decreases. Explain these typical lab results based on how HIV affects the immune system.
0 of 5 12345 Explain how radiation and chemicals can cause cancer.
0 of 5 12345 Give at least three reasons why it is important to eat a healthful diet.