Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12: Tang & Song Dynasties"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 12: Tang & Song Dynasties Reunification and Renaissance220 CE.—Han dynasty ends—Era of Division—Sui dynasty—Tang dynasty—Song dynasty—Mongol (Yuan) dynasty
2Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice 6th century—Sui dynasty comes to power under the rule of WendiWins widespread support byLowering taxesEstablishing granaries (wards off famine)
3Sui Excesses and Collapse Yangdi expands on his father’s foundationsMilder legal codeRestoration of exam system (Confucianism)Promotion of scholar-gentryExcess, waste and wars lead to collapseYangdi assassinated in 618 by his own ministers
4Emergence of the TangLi Yuan saves imperial order and lays the foundation for the TangExtends borders of the empire and attempts to assimilate nomads of the C. Asian frontier
5Rebuilding the Bureaucracy Continues revival of Confucian thought and promotion of scholar-gentryScholar-gentry staffs the bureaucracy, offsetting power of the nobilityBureaucracyImperial level—executive departmentDistrict level—regional and provincial offices
6The Examination System Emphasis on Confucian thought (taught moral & organizational principles needed for good gov’t)Exams administered by the Ministry of RitesJinshi --receive top gov’t jobs and elite social statusMeritocracy exists, but birth/family connections still most important for gaining jobs
7State and Religion in Tang/Song Era Confucian revival threatens BuddhismVariants—Pure Land, Zen (Chan)Tang emperors support Buddhism.Empress WuBuddhism is a powerful and influential force
8Anti-Buddhist Backlash Buddhism poses various challenges to Taoists and BuddhistsRestriction & persecution under WuzongConfucianism emerges as the central ideology from the 9th century until the 20th century.
9Rise of the Song Rivalries and assassinations weaken Tang Xuangong and Yang Guifei’s relationship signals end of the dynastyCollapse in 9th c. brought about by:Nomadic groups powerful provincial governorsWorsening economic conditions
10Founding of the Song Zhao Kuangyin establishes the Song dynasty Unable to conquer Liao dynasty to the north (inherent weakness of Song over nomadic groups)Tribute paid to Liao in exchange for Sinification
11Song Politics Smaller & less powerful than Tang Weakened military while strengthening scholar-gentryLax exam rules quickly bloat the bureaucracy with too many less qualified bureaucrats
12Confucian Revival Neo-Confucians= revivers of Confucian thinking Stressed rank, obligation, ritual, class, age and gender distinctions (highly patriarchal)Answers to future problems found in past examples
13Decline and Reform Variety of reasons: Inability to fight off nomadic groupsHigh costs of maintaining an armyElite disdain for militaryEfforts at reform (Wang Anshi) fail to carry on through successive emperors
14Reaction & Disaster Neo-Confucians reverse Wang’s reforms Nomads (Jurchens) annex territorySouthern Song dynasty rules from 1167 to 1279politically weak; culturally achieved new heights of glory
15Golden Age: Tang & Song Prosperity Major shift in population balancePublic works (Grand Canal) help counter the shift and solidify control over southern regions
16Commercial ExpansionNaval technology (junks)= growth of overseas tradeHuge markets, expansion of commerce leads to innovation (flying money)Rapid urban growth
18Expansion of Agriculture Rulers encouraged migration to uncultivated areasState regulated irrigation, canal systemsNew seeds, better fertilizer, inventions (wheelbarrow) increase crop yieldsSmaller estates give more power to peasants and not elite landlordsExtended family structure
19Family & SocietyPosition of women initially climbs, then rapidly falls during late SongStressed:Authority of eldersSubordination of womenMarriage alliances
20Neo-ConfucianismMovement allows for freedom for men and confinement for womenWomen lose:Legal rightsAccess to educationStatus within society and the homeBest exemplified by footbinding
21FootbindingOriginates in the palace of the last king of the Tang Dynastycontinued even when it was banned by the Manchurian Qing Dynasty ( ).In remote mountainous areas, women still had their feet bound even when the New China was founded in 1949.
22Although foot-binding is no longer practiced, many women with bound feet are still alive. Author Beverley Jackson photographed this woman in Yunan Province in 1997.
25Invention, Scholarship & Artistic Creativity Technological breakthroughsBuddhist art & architectureConfucian literatureArt reflects themes of nature, order, balance and simplicity
26China’s World RoleNo major changes, instead, a consolidation of Chinese civilizationMajor technological innovations and most advanced economy in the worldExtends influence over East AsiaChinese technology will soon change the world