War in the Pacific The Big Idea Allied forces reversed Japan’s expansion in the Pacific and battled toward the main Japanese islands. Main Ideas The Japanese continued advancing across the Pacific in 1942. The Allies stopped Japan’s advance with key victories over the Japanese navy. The Allies began battling toward Japan.
Doolittle’s Raid on Tokyo April 18, 1942April 18, 1942 Carrier launched B-25’s attack TokyoCarrier launched B-25’s attack Tokyo Not much damage but lifted U.S. morale.Not much damage but lifted U.S. morale.
James Doolittle Fortunes Shift in the Pacific Army Lieutenant Colonel 16 American bombersair raid of Tokyo and several other Japanese citiesLed a group of 16 American bombers on a daring air raid of Tokyo and several other Japanese cities Doolittle’s raid did not do major damage to the Japanese targets, but it did give the American people something to celebrate and worried Japan’s leaders. Victory in the Battle of Coral SeaVictory in the Battle of Coral Sea Victory in the Battle of MidwayVictory in the Battle of Midway Allied Advances in the Pacific
Main Idea 1: The Japanese continued advancing across the Pacific in 1942. Attack on Pearl Harbor left U.S. Pacific fleet weakened. JapanconqueredThailand, Burma, the British colonies of Hong Kong and Singapore, and the U.S. territories of Guam and Wake Island.Japan advanced and conquered Thailand, Burma, the British colonies of Hong Kong and Singapore, and the U.S. territories of Guam and Wake Island. JapaneseattackedPhilippinesJapanese then attacked U.S. controlled Philippines. general Douglas MacArthur. –American and Filipino forces under command of American general Douglas MacArthur. MacArthur’s troops were no match for the Japanese and he retreated to the Bataan Peninsula. Although he called for reinforcements, war planners decided sending ships was too risky. March 1942– Allied forces surrender PhilippinesMarch 1942– Allied forces surrender Philippines to Japan. 70,000 captured soldiers –Japanese march more than 70,000 captured soldiers to prison camps. Bataan Death March. –More than 600 Americans and 10,000 Filipinos died when the Japanese forced them to march through the steaming forests of Bataan. This became known as the Bataan Death March.
Japan Advances IdentifyIdentify – Who was Douglas MacArthur? RecallRecall – Which nations unsuccessfully tried to defend Hong Kong? ExplainExplain – What was the Bataan Death March?
Main Idea 2: The Allies stopped Japan’s advance with key victories over the Japanese navy. Allies feared continued Japanese advance. (Magic)Americans were able to break Japanese codes (Magic) and discovered battle plans. admiral Chester NimitzAmerican admiral Chester Nimitz led the U.S. Pacific Fleet in Allied response.
Key Victories in the Pacific Battle of the Coral Sea Japanese planned assault on Port Moresby, New Guinea. American and Japanese aircraft carriers and fighter planes clashedAmerican and Japanese aircraft carriers and fighter planes clashed. No clear victor, but Japanese advance halted Battle of Midway Japanese surprise attackJapanese planned surprise attack on Midway Islands. June 4, 1942– Japanese attack and American fighters launch American bombers destroy four carriers and severely weaken Japanese naval power.American bombers destroy four carriers and severely weaken Japanese naval power. Allied victoryAllied victoryGuadalcanal Allies began recapturing Japanese territory. August 1942 Marines invadeAugust 1942– American Marines invade Guadalcanal. Six months of intense fightingSix months of intense fighting February 1943– Allied victory
Battle of the Coral Sea- May 7+8, 1942 Japanese- Adm. Yamamoto –Force a major sea battle to destroy the Allied Pacific Fleet and invade Australia. –Thus stop any Allied offensive against Japan. Historic Naval battle –showed Modern Science –Aircraft carrier v. aircraft carrier –Tactical victory went to Japanese- –Tactical victory went to Japanese- The “box score” –Strategic victory went to U.S –Strategic victory went to U.S.- forcing Japan to stop drive toward Australia. Airplane bombers, fighters and torpedo bombers. –This was the first naval engagement to take place where the opposing ships never fired a shot at each other. Airplane bombers, fighters and torpedo bombers.
Battle of Midway- June 4-7, 1942 Midway was the turning point of the Pacific CampaignFought just a month after the Battle of the Coral Sea, Midway was the turning point of the Pacific Campaign Yamamoto’s secret plan to surprise the American ships at Midway With American ships destroyed, –Japan could avenge the bombing of the Japanese home islands. – Japan could plug the hole in their Eastern defensive perimeter and –Japan could perhaps even invade and take Hawaii. The loss of four carriers stopped the expansion of the Japanese Empire in the Pacific, and put Japan on the defensive.The loss of four carriers stopped the expansion of the Japanese Empire in the Pacific, and put Japan on the defensive. Balance of naval power now shifts to the U.S.A.Balance of naval power now shifts to the U.S.A.
Battle of Midway Prior to this action, Japan possessed general naval superiority over the United States and could usually choose where and when to attack. After Midway, the two opposing fleets were essentially equals, and the United States soon took the offensive.
Key Allied Victories IdentifyIdentify – Where did the Allies fear the Japanese would advance? ExplainExplain – What two advantages did the United States have with codes?
Main Idea 3: The Allies began battling toward Japan. Allies go on offensive island hopping strategy –Develop island hopping strategy, where Allied forces took only the most strategically important islands. –Win victories in Gilbert, Marshall, Mariana, Volcano, and Bonin Islands. October 1944– General MacArthur leads mission to retake PhilippinesOctober 1944– General MacArthur leads mission to retake Philippines. Battle of Leyte Gulf– largest naval battle in history –Confrontation at Battle of Leyte Gulf– largest naval battle in history –Allies crush Japanese fleet. –Allied forces drive out all Japanese forces by summer 1945. Allied planes begin bombing targets in Japan.Allied planes begin bombing targets in Japan. –Japanese refused to surrender –Japanese refused to surrender.
The United States Military "Island Hops" Towards Japan (00:58)
Allied Progress in the Pacific 1.Gained control of territory in the Solomon Islands to protect Australia 2.Used powerful combination of land, sea, and air forces to capture key islands 3.Captured locations in the Gilbert, Marshall, Caroline, and Mariana islands 4.Took advantage of American industrial power by replacing ships and aircrafts, which Japan was unable to do 5.European successes allowed more resources to be made available in the Pacific. 6.Recaptured the Philippines 7.Captured strategic Japanese islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa
Guadalcanal Allies wanted to gain control of the Solomon Islands to protect Australia. Key goal was the capture of an island called Guadalcanal American forces fought for 6 months and finally defeated the JapaneseAmerican forces fought for 6 months and finally defeated the Japanese. Navajo Code Talkers Hundreds of Native Americans of the Navajo nation served in the Marines as code talkers. They translated messages into a coded version of the Navajo language.They translated messages into a coded version of the Navajo language. Japanese code- breakers never figured it out. The Allies Make Progress The Philippines First major battle was the Battle of Leyte Gulf. The Allies destroyed most of Japan’s fleet.The Allies destroyed most of Japan’s fleet. kamikaze attackJapanese began using the kamikaze attack. After months of fighting, the Allies gained control of the Philippines.
Battle for Guadalcanal - Aug. 7, 1942 On August 8th, 1942, the Americans began their first counter-attack in the Pacific. The fight for the island was long and bitter, with both sides attempting to reinforce their troops. The American forces, however, were victorious. Finally, in February 1943, the island was secured. The naval battle at Guadalcanal, lasting six months from August, 1942, to February, 1943, was the longest sea battle in history. Iron Bottom Sound was filled with some 100 sunken ships. Disease played a major role in troop effectiveness.
August, 1942; The Attack on Guadalcanal (01:07)
Navajo Code Talkers The Code Talker's primary job was to talk and transmit information on tactics, troop movements, orders and other vital battlefield information via telegraphs and radios in their native dialect. A major advantage of the code talker system was its speed. Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Peleliu, Iwo Jima: the Navajo code talkers took part in every assault the U.S. Marines conducted in the Pacific from 1942 to 1945. They served in all six Marine divisions, Marine Raider battalions and Marine parachute units, transmitting messages by telephone and radio in their native language -- a code that the Japanese never broke.
Leyte Gulf and the Philippines The Battle of Leyte Gulf was the largest naval battle in history.The Battle of Leyte Gulf was the largest naval battle in history. It was fought during the Pacific Theatre of Operations PTO of World War II, in the seas surrounding the Philippine island of Leyte from 23 October to 26 October 1944It was fought during the Pacific Theatre of Operations PTO of World War II, in the seas surrounding the Philippine island of Leyte from 23 October to 26 October 1944 Between the Allies and the Empire of Japan.Between the Allies and the Empire of Japan. "The Japanese fleet had [effectively] ceased to exist, and, except by land-based aircraft, their opponents had won undisputed command of the sea. When Admiral Ozawa was questioned on the battle after the war he replied 'After this battle the surface forces became strictly auxiliary, so that we relied on land forces, special [Kamikaze] attack, and air power.. there was no further use assigned to surface vessels, with the exception of some special ships.'"The Japanese fleet had [effectively] ceased to exist, and, except by land-based aircraft, their opponents had won undisputed command of the sea. When Admiral Ozawa was questioned on the battle after the war he replied 'After this battle the surface forces became strictly auxiliary, so that we relied on land forces, special [Kamikaze] attack, and air power.. there was no further use assigned to surface vessels, with the exception of some special ships.'
Final Battles Iwo JimaFebruary 1945– U.S. Marines storm beaches of Iwo Jima Month of bloody fighting –Of 20,000 Japanese defenders, about a thousand were taken prisoner, the rest were killed or wounded in battle. –Around 6,800 Americans killed OkinawaApril 1945– U.S. forces attack Okinawa. Fighting lasts three monthsFighting lasts three months kamikaze –Japanese planes use kamikaze tactic– purposely crashing piloted planes into enemy ships. –Severe casualties Allies: 12,000 dead, 36,000 woundedAllies: 12,000 dead, 36,000 wounded Japan: 110,00 troops and 80,000 civilians deadJapan: 110,00 troops and 80,000 civilians dead Okinawa Iwo Jima
Japan Advances RecallRecall – What sets the Battle of Leyte Gulf apart from other naval battles? ExplainExplain – How did the strategy of island hopping work? EvaluateEvaluate – What made Iwo-Jima such a difficult island for U.S. soldiers to take?
Japan Advances DefineDefine – What was a kamikaze mission? Draw ConclusionsDraw Conclusions – In what way did the Japanese contribute to their own staggering losses? RateRate – Why do you think the photograph of the Marines raising the flag on Mr. Suribachi is still a beloved image today?