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Napoleon’s Empire Collapses Ch. 7.4

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1 Napoleon’s Empire Collapses Ch. 7.4
Last section = Napoleon’s rise to power This section = Napoleon’s downfall.

2 Napoleon’s Costly Mistakes
Napoleon’s own personality posed a threat to his empire Love of power pushed to expand Led to empires collapse. Three costly mistakes Desire to crush Britain, economically ordered a blockade. (STOP TRADE W/ OTHER NATIONS) *Continental System (1806) - economic plan to strengthen Europe - weaken Britain by halting trade with other European nations. This was to make continental Europe more self-sufficient Smugglers and uncooperative allies make France’s blockade fail *Britain responds with blockade of its own, led by its stronger navy *Portugal refuse to honor the continental system = Napoleon invaded This backfired by weakening the French economy

3 Napoleon’s Costly Mistakes
Napoleon makes his brother king of Spain, making things worse Spanish fight as guerrillas—small groups that attacked and then disappear (guerrilla army uses ambush (stealth and surprise) and mobility draw enemy forces to terrain unsuited to them) British aid Spanish guerrillas Napoleon loses 300,000 soldiers during this Peninsular War (Iberian Peninsula) Nationalist rebels fight the French in other conquered territories

4 Napoleon’s Costly Mistakes
The Invasion of Russia (The WORST MISTAKE, EVER!) Relations with Russia break down, Napoleon decides to invade In June 1812, Napoleon’s army marches into Russia with 420,000 men (got as far as Moscow) Russians use scorched-earth policy—destroying crops, livestock as they retreated. - Napoleon’s armies could not eat what the Russians left behind Napoleon finds Moscow abandoned and burning (Czar Alexander I was the emperor) The Russian winter stopped Napoleon’s army Napoleon’s army retreats back to France Cold weather Hunger Russian attacks Napoleon lost thousands of soldiers (only 10,000 survive to fight – many deserted)

5 Napoleon’s Downfall Napoleon Suffers Other Defeats
Other European leaders see that Napoleon is now weaker Britain, Prussia, Sweden, Russia, Austria join forces against Napoleon, and attacked France 1813, Napoleon is defeated at the Battle of Leipzig (Germany) 1814, Napoleon gives up his throne and is exiled (sent away) to *island of Elba (off of Italian coast) The Hundred Days Louis XVIII, new king, is soon overthrown (peasants fear he would undo the land reforms of the Revolution) Napoleon returns from exile for the *Hundred Days (March, 1815) *Waterloo (1815) — British, Prussian forces defeat Napoleon’s army This defeat ends Hundred Days — Napoleon’s last attempt at power Napoleon is sent to the island of* St. Helena, & dies there in 1821 (stomach cancer?)

6 Battle of Waterloo

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