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© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 7 Behavioral and Social Cognitive Approaches.

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1 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 7 Behavioral and Social Cognitive Approaches

2 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches to Learning Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience. There are five major approaches to learning.

3 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches to Learning Behavioral Approaches to Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning

4 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Ivan Pavlov – Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an organism learns to connect or associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response.

5 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Classical Conditioning

6 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Classical Conditioning Principles Generalization The tendency of a new stimulus similar to the original conditioned stimulus to produce a similar response. Discrimination The organism responds to certain stimuli but not others. Extinction The weakening of the conditioned response (CR) in the absence of the unconditioned response (UCS).

7 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Systematic Desensitization Reduces anxiety by getting the individual to associate deep relaxation with successive visualizations of increasingly anxiety-producing situations.

8 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Patty does poorly on a math test. This makes her feel anxious. From that point on, she always becomes anxious when taking a math test. As the school year progresses, she begins experiencing anxiety when she has tests in other subject areas as well. Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Theory into Practice Q.1: Identify the UCS in the example above. Q.2: Identify the UCR in the example above. Q.3: Identify the CS in the example above. Q.4: Identify the CR in the example above.

9 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Patty does poorly on a math test. This makes her feel anxious. From that point on, she always becomes anxious when taking a math test. As the school year progresses, she begins experiencing anxiety when she has tests in other subject areas as well. Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Theory into Practice Q: Why would Patty begin to experience anxiety in response to tests in content areas other than math?

10 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Classical Conditioning Good at explaining how neutral stimuli become associated with unlearned, involuntary responses Good at understanding students’ anxieties and fears Not as effective at explaining voluntary behaviors

11 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Operant Conditioning Thorndike’s Law of Effect Behavior Positive outcome Behavior strengthened Behavior Negative outcome Behavior weakened …is a form of learning in which the consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability that the behavior will occur.

12 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Consequences are contingent on the organism’s behavior. Reinforcement increases the probability that a behavior will occur. Punishment decreases the probability that a behavior will occur.

13 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Operant Conditioning Principles Generalization Giving the same response to similar stimuli. Discrimination Differentiating among stimuli or environmental events. Extinction Previously reinforced response is no longer reinforced and the response decreases. 7.13

14 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Applied Behavior Analysis …is applying principles of operant conditioning to change human behavior.

15 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Increasing Desirable Behaviors Choose effective reinforcers. Consider contracting. Make reinforcers contingent and timely. Use negative reinforcement effectively. Select the BEST reinforcement schedule. Use prompts and shaping.

16 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Applied Behavior Analysis A  B  C

17 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Reinforcement: Shaping and Fading Shaping: Involves teaching new behaviors by reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behavior. 1. First, reward any response. 2. Next, reward responses that resemble the desired behavior. 3. Finally, reward only target behavior. Fading: Slowly removing reinforcement 1. Use to initiate behavior. 2. Once desired behavior is consistent, slowly reduce or remove reinforcement.

18 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Reinforcement Schedules Fixed-Ratio Reinforce after a set number of responses Variable-Ratio Reinforce after an average but unpredictable number of responses Fixed-Interval Reinforce appropriate response after a fixed amount of time Variable-Interval Reinforce appropriate response after a variable amount of time

19 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Reinforcement Schedules

20 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Reinforcement Guidelines for the Classroom: Initial learning is better with continuous reinforcement. Students on fixed schedules show less persistence, faster response extinction. Students show greatest persistence on variable-interval schedule. The Premack principle states that a high-probability activity can serve as a reinforcer for a low-probability activity. “Eat your dinner and you can go out to play.”

21 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. What would you do to increase the frequency of these behaviors? Your class quiets down when you are ready to start a lesson An eighth grader hands in his homework The class lines up for lunch in an orderly way Your social studies class listens attentively to a classmate giving a presentation A fourth grader asks you insightful questions during a science lesson

22 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Identify positive reinforcement, the Premack principle, and negative reinforcement in the following examples: Katya sits at the front of the auditorium where a speech is being given to get away from the talking that is going on in the back. Thomas puts his toys away more frequently now because he earns colored stickers when he does. Nickie is finishing more of her homework now because she is allowed to listen to CDs when she is done.

23 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Operant Conditioning Response Cost: removal of pre- established reinforcement Time Out: removal of reinforcing situation

24 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Caveats of Time Out Child must understand what is going on Adults must be aware Time out area should be humane and safe Time out area should be nonreinforcing Time out should not be used for extended periods of time Time out cannot be used to exclude children from education

25 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Operant Conditioning Response Cost: removal of pre- established reinforcement Time Out: removal of reinforcing situation Satiation/Negative Practice: reduce negative behavior through overload of positive behavior

26 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Decreasing Undesirable Behaviors 1. Use differential reinforcement by reinforcing more appropriate behavior. 2. Withdraw positive reinforcement (extinction) from a child’s inappropriate behavior. 3. Remove desirable stimuli through “time- out” and “response cost.” 4. Present aversive stimuli (punishment).

27 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. How would you attempt to decrease the following behaviors? Andrew likes to utter profanities every now and then Sandy tells you to quit bugging her when you ask her questions Matt likes to mess up other students’ papers Rebecca frequently talks with other students around her while you are explaining or demonstrating something

28 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Nick frequently gets out of his seat and entertains his classmates with humorous remarks. Mr. Lincoln often scolds Nick for his behavior. However, Nick’s classmates laugh when Nick makes remarks. The scolding rarely has any impact. Nick continues with his antics. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory into Practice Q.1: What is Mr. Lincoln attempting to do when he scolds Nick? Q.2: Why does Nick continue his antics in spite of being scolded? Q.3: What are three strategies Mr. Lincoln could try to keep Nick more on task? 7.16

29 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Operant Conditioning Good job of describing how teachers give rewards and take away rewards to modify behavior Critics argue places too much emphasis on external control of behavior Critics also point out potential ethical problems exist when used inappropriately

30 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Reflection Reflection: In your educational experience, what types of incentives did teachers use? How effective was their use? Why were they effective or ineffective?

31 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Social, cognitive, and behavioral factors play important roles in learning. Self-efficacy: The belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes. Observational learning occurs when a person observes and imitates someone else’s behavior.

32 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism P/C Personal and cognitive factors E Environment B Behavior

33 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Bandura’s Contemporary Model of Observational Learning Retention Student retention will be improved when teachers give logical and clear demonstrations. Production Poor motor ability inhibits reproduction of the model’s behavior. Help improve skills. Attention Students are more likely to be attentive to high-status models (teachers). Motivation When given a reinforcement, modeling increases.

34 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Nick frequently gets out of his seat and entertains his classmates with humorous remarks. Mr. Lincoln often scolds Nick for his behavior. However, Nick’s classmates laugh when Nick makes remarks. The scolding rarely has any impact. Nick continues with his antics. After several days of this, other boys in the class begin to get out of their seats and make humorous remarks as well. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Theory into Practice Q.1: Why do the other boys begin to misbehave? Explain. Q.2: What does this say about Nick?

35 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Classroom Use of Observational Learning Decide what type of model you will be Use peers as effective models Demonstrate and teach new behaviors Use mentors as models Consider the models children observe in the media

36 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Self-Reflection In terms of my final course grades, I am trying very hard to:  Earn all As  Earn all As and Bs  Keep my overall GPA at or above the minimally acceptable level at Lycoming

37 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Self-Reflection (con’t) As I am reading or studying a textbook:  I often notice when my attention is wandering, and I immediately get my mind back on my work.  I sometimes notice when my attention is wandering, but not always.  I often get so lost in daydreams that I waste a lot of time.

38 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Self-Reflection (con’t) Whenever I finish a study session:  I write down how much time I have spent on my schoolwork.  I make a mental note of how much time I have spent on my schoolwork.  I don’t really think much about the time I have spent.

39 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Self-Reflection (con’t) When I turn in an assignment:  I usually have a good idea of the grade I will get on it.  I am often surprised by the grade I get.  I don’t think much about the quality of what I have done.

40 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Self-Reflection (con’t) When I do exceptionally well on an assignment:  I feel good about my performance and might reward myself in some way.  I feel good about my performance but don’t do anything special for myself afterward.  I don’t feel much differently than I had before I received a grade on the assignment.

41 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. A Model of Self-Regulatory Learning Self-Evaluation and Monitoring Putting a Plan into Action and Monitoring It Goal Setting and Strategic Planning Monitoring Outcomes and Refining Strategies

42 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Characteristics of Self- Regulated Learners Establish goals and standards for their own performance Plan a course of action for a learning task Control and monitor their cognitive processes and progress during a learning task

43 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. I have to remember to go slowly to get it right. Look carefully at this one, now look at these carefully. Is this one different? Yes, it has an extra leaf. Good, I can eliminate this one. Now, let’s look at this one. I think it’s this one, but let me first check the others. Good, I’m going slow and carefully. Okay, I think it’s this one.

44 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Characteristics of Self- Regulated Learners (con’t) Monitor and try to control their motivation and emotions Seek assistance and support when they need it Evaluate the final outcomes of their efforts Self-impose consequences for their performance

45 © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Evaluating the Social Cognitive Perspective Provides important insights to understanding children Emphasis on self-responsibility as opposed to being controlled by others Use of self-enacted strategies can significantly improve students’ learning Critics feel still places too much emphasis on behavior and external factors


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