Presentation on theme: "Behavioral and Social Cognitive Approaches"— Presentation transcript:
1Behavioral and Social Cognitive Approaches CHAPTER 7Behavioral and Social Cognitive Approaches
2Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches to Learning Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience. There are five major approaches to learning.
3Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches to Learning ClassicalConditioningOperantConditioning
4Ivan Pavlov – Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an organism learns to connect or associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response.
6Classical Conditioning Principles GeneralizationThe tendency of a new stimulus similar to the original conditioned stimulus to produce a similar response.DiscriminationThe organism responds to certain stimuli but not others.ExtinctionThe weakening of the conditioned response (CR) in the absence of the unconditioned response (UCS).
7Systematic Desensitization Reduces anxiety by getting the individual to associate deep relaxation with successivevisualizations ofincreasinglyanxiety-producingsituations.
8Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Theory into Practice Patty does poorly on a math test. This makes her feel anxious. From that point on, she always becomes anxious when taking a math test. As the school year progresses, she begins experiencing anxiety when she has tests in other subject areas as well.Q.1: Identify the UCS in the example above.Q.2: Identify the UCR in the example above.Q.3: Identify the CS in the example above.Q.4: Identify the CR in the example above.A1: The unconditioned stimulus is doing poorly on the math test.A2: The unconditioned response is anxiety. Anxiety is a natural response to failure.A3: The conditioned stimulus is math tests. Once Patty has associated the test with failure, she begins to experience anxiety in response to math tests.A4: The conditioned response is anxiety.
9Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Theory into Practice Patty does poorly on a math test. This makes her feel anxious. From that point on, she always becomes anxious when taking a math test. As the school year progresses, she begins experiencing anxiety when she has tests in other subject areas as well.A: She is experiencing stimulus generalization. She has generalized her anxiety response to similar stimuli—tests in other content areas.Q: Why would Patty begin to experience anxiety in response to tests in content areas other than math?
10Evaluation of Classical Conditioning Good at explaining how neutral stimuli become associated with unlearned, involuntary responsesGood at understanding students’ anxieties and fearsNot as effective at explaining voluntary behaviors
11Thorndike’s Law of Effect Operant Conditioning…is a form of learning in which the consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability that the behavior will occur.Thorndike’s Law of EffectBehaviorPositive outcomeBehavior strengthenedNegative outcomeBehavior weakened
12Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Consequences are contingent on the organism’s behavior.Reinforcement increases the probability that a behavior will occur.Punishment decreases the probability that a behavior will occur.
13Operant Conditioning Principles GeneralizationGiving the same response to similar stimuli.DiscriminationDifferentiating among stimuli or environmental events.ExtinctionPreviously reinforced response is no longer reinforced and the response decreases.7.13
14Applied Behavior Analysis …is applying principles of operant conditioning to change human behavior.
15Increasing Desirable Behaviors Choose effectivereinforcers.Consider contracting.Make reinforcerscontingent and timely.Use negative reinforcementeffectively.Select the BESTreinforcement schedule.Use prompts and shaping.
17Reinforcement: Shaping and Fading Shaping: Involves teaching new behaviors by reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behavior.First, reward any response.Next, reward responses that resemble the desired behavior.Finally, reward only target behavior.Fading: Slowly removing reinforcementUse to initiate behavior.Once desired behavior is consistent, slowly reduce or remove reinforcement.
18Reinforcement Schedules Fixed-Ratio Reinforce after a set number of responsesVariable-Ratio Reinforce after an average but unpredictable number of responsesFixed-Interval Reinforce appropriate response after a fixed amount of timeVariable-Interval Reinforce appropriate response after a variable amount of time
20“Eat your dinner and you can go out to play.” ReinforcementGuidelines for the Classroom:Initial learning is better with continuous reinforcement.Students on fixed schedules show less persistence, faster response extinction.Students show greatest persistence on variable-interval schedule.The Premack principle states that a high-probability activity can serve as a reinforcer for a low-probability activity.“Eat your dinner and you can go out to play.”
21What would you do to increase the frequency of these behaviors? Your class quiets down when you are ready to start a lessonAn eighth grader hands in his homeworkThe class lines up for lunch in an orderly wayYour social studies class listens attentively to a classmate giving a presentationA fourth grader asks you insightful questions during a science lesson
22Identify positive reinforcement, the Premack principle, and negative reinforcement in the following examples:Katya sits at the front of the auditorium where a speech is being given to get away from the talking that is going on in the back.Thomas puts his toys away more frequently now because he earns colored stickers when he does.Nickie is finishing more of her homework now because she is allowed to listen to CDs when she is done.
23Operant ConditioningResponse Cost: removal of pre-established reinforcementTime Out: removal of reinforcing situation
24Caveats of Time Out Child must understand what is going on Adults must be awareTime out area should be humane and safeTime out area should be nonreinforcingTime out should not be used for extended periods of timeTime out cannot be used to exclude children from education
25Operant ConditioningResponse Cost: removal of pre-established reinforcementTime Out: removal of reinforcing situationSatiation/Negative Practice: reduce negative behavior through overload of positive behavior
26Decreasing Undesirable Behaviors 1. Use differential reinforcement by reinforcing more appropriate behavior.2. Withdraw positive reinforcement (extinction) from a child’s inappropriate behavior.3. Remove desirable stimuli through “time-out” and “response cost.”4. Present aversive stimuli (punishment).
27How would you attempt to decrease the following behaviors? Andrew likes to utter profanities every now and thenSandy tells you to quit bugging her when you ask her questionsMatt likes to mess up other students’ papersRebecca frequently talks with other students around her while you are explaining or demonstrating something
28Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory into Practice Nick frequently gets out of his seat and entertains his classmates with humorous remarks. Mr. Lincoln often scolds Nick for his behavior. However, Nick’s classmates laugh when Nick makes remarks. The scolding rarely has any impact. Nick continues with his antics.Q.1: What is Mr. Lincoln attempting to do when he scolds Nick?Q.2: Why does Nick continue his antics in spite of being scolded?Q.3: What are three strategies Mr. Lincoln could try to keep Nick more on task?A1: He is attempting to present Nick with an aversive stimulus—he is attempting to punish Nick.A2: Nick’s classmates are reinforcing his behavior by laughing and/or Nick does not mind being scolded. Perhaps he enjoys the attention.A3: Differential reinforcement—he could reinforce Nick for behaving appropriatelyContracting—he could contract with Nick. If Nick behaves appropriately for a period of time, he would receive some sort of reinforcementPrompting—he could develop a signal to Nick to get back on task. This could be a frown, a tap on the shoulder or desk, or just making eye contact.Terminate reinforcement—he could stop giving Nick attention for his behavior (this may not work because it is difficult to elicit the cooperation of the rest of the class to not laugh at something that is funny)Remove desirable stimuli—Nick may benefit from time-outResponse cost—Nick could lose privileges when he misbehaves7.16
29Evaluation of Operant Conditioning Good job of describing how teachers give rewards and take away rewards to modify behaviorCritics argue places too much emphasis on external control of behaviorCritics also point out potential ethical problems exist when used inappropriately
30Reflection Reflection: In your educational experience, what types of incentives did teachers use?How effective was their use? Why were they effective or ineffective?Classroom Observation Video: “Incentives”Please note: Some of these videos are very large; large videos may take a minute or two to download. You will need QuickTime player to view the videos.
31Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Social, cognitive, and behavioral factors play important roles in learning.Self-efficacy: The belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes.Observational learning occurs when a person observes and imitates someone else’s behavior.
32Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism P/C Personal and cognitive factorsEEnvironmentBBehavior
33Bandura’s Contemporary Model of Observational Learning AttentionStudents are more likely tobe attentive to high-statusmodels (teachers).RetentionStudent retention will be improved when teachers give logical and clear demonstrations.ProductionPoor motor ability inhibitsreproduction of the model’sbehavior. Help improve skills.MotivationWhen given a reinforcement,modeling increases.
34Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Theory into Practice Nick frequently gets out of his seat and entertains his classmates with humorous remarks. Mr. Lincoln often scolds Nick for his behavior. However, Nick’s classmates laugh when Nick makes remarks. The scolding rarely has any impact. Nick continues with his antics. After several days of this, other boys in the class begin to get out of their seats and make humorous remarks as well.A1: They have learned from observing Nick that such behavior results in reinforcement from peers. Therefore, they imitate him.A2: Since children are more likely to imitate a high status model, we might assume that Nick has high status among his peers.Q.1: Why do the other boys begin to misbehave? Explain.Q.2: What does this say about Nick?
35Classroom Use of Observational Learning Decide what type ofmodel you will beDemonstrate and teachnew behaviorsUse peers aseffective modelsUse mentors asmodelsConsider the modelschildren observein the media
36Self-ReflectionIn terms of my final course grades, I am trying very hard to:Earn all AsEarn all As and BsKeep my overall GPA at or above the minimally acceptable level at Lycoming
37Self-Reflection (con’t) As I am reading or studying a textbook:I often notice when my attention is wandering, and I immediately get my mind back on my work.I sometimes notice when my attention is wandering, but not always.I often get so lost in daydreams that I waste a lot of time.
38Self-Reflection (con’t) Whenever I finish a study session:I write down how much time I have spent on my schoolwork.I make a mental note of how much time I have spent on my schoolwork.I don’t really think much about the time I have spent.
39Self-Reflection (con’t) When I turn in an assignment:I usually have a good idea of the grade I will get on it.I am often surprised by the grade I get.I don’t think much about the quality of what I have done.
40Self-Reflection (con’t) When I do exceptionally well on an assignment:I feel good about my performance and might reward myself in some way.I feel good about my performance but don’t do anything special for myself afterward.I don’t feel much differently than I had before I received a grade on the assignment.
41A Model of Self-Regulatory Learning Self-Evaluation and MonitoringMonitoring Outcomes and Refining StrategiesGoal Setting and Strategic PlanningPutting a Plan into Action and Monitoring It
42Characteristics of Self-Regulated Learners Establish goals and standards for their own performancePlan a course of action for a learning taskControl and monitor their cognitive processes and progress during a learning task
43I have to remember to go slowly to get it right I have to remember to go slowly to get it right. Look carefully at this one, now look at these carefully. Is this one different? Yes, it has an extra leaf. Good, I can eliminate this one. Now, let’s look at this one. I think it’s this one, but let me first check the others. Good, I’m going slow and carefully. Okay, I think it’s this one.
44Characteristics of Self-Regulated Learners (con’t) Monitor and try to control their motivation and emotionsSeek assistance and support when they need itEvaluate the final outcomes of their effortsSelf-impose consequences for their performance
45Evaluating the Social Cognitive Perspective Provides important insights to understanding childrenEmphasis on self-responsibility as opposed to being controlled by othersUse of self-enacted strategies can significantly improve students’ learningCritics feel still places too much emphasis on behavior and external factors