Presentation on theme: "Module 10 Operant & Cognitive Approaches. Thorndike’s Law of Effect Behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened while behaviors followed."— Presentation transcript:
Module 10 Operant & Cognitive Approaches
Thorndike’s Law of Effect Behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened while behaviors followed by negative consequences are weakened
Skinner’s Operant Conditioning An operant response is a response that can be modified by its consequences and is a meaningful unit of ongoing behavior that can be easily measured Operant conditioning focuses on how consequences affect behavior Source: Based on Behavior of Organisms, by B. F. Skinner, 1938. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Reinforcement & Punishment Reinforcement (Strengthens Behavior) –A consequence that occurs after a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again Punishment (Weakens Behavior) –A consequence that occurs after a behavior and decreases the chance that the behavior will occur again
Reinforcement & Punishment Reinforcement (Strengthens Behavior) –A consequence that occurs after a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again –Positive reinforcement presentation of a stimulus that increases the probability that the behavior will occur again –Negative reinforcement an aversive stimulus whose removal increases the likelihood that the preceding response will occur again
Reinforcement & Punishment Punishment (Weakens Behavior) –A consequence that occurs after a behavior and decreases the chance that the behavior will occur again –Positive punishment Presenting an aversive stimulus after a response It decreases the chances that a response will recur –Negative punishment Removing a reinforcing stimulus after a response It decreases the chances that a response will recur
Clarification of Terms Reinforcement vs. Punishment –Reinforcement- Strengthens preceding behavior –Punishment- Weakens preceding behavior Positive vs. Negative –Positive- adding/ introducing a stimulus –Negative- subtracting/ taking away a stimulus
Examples of Operant Conditioning: Toilet Training Target behavior –Goal is for Sheryl to urinate in the toilet Preparation –Give Sheryl a large glass of apple juice Reinforcers –Each time Sheryl performs the desired behavior, she receives an immediate reinforcer Shaping –Each time Sheryl performs a step that leads up to using the toilet, she receives reinforcement
Primary vs. Secondary Reinforcers Primary reinforcer –Stimulus that is innately satisfying and requires no learning to become pleasurable –Food, water, and sex Secondary reinforcer –Stimulus that has acquired its reinforcing power through experience –Coupons, money, and grades
Consequences Positive Reinforcement (pleasant stimulus applied) Increases the preceding behavior Negative Reinforcement (unpleasant stimulus removed or withheld) Increases the preceding behavior Positive Punishment (unpleasant stimulus applied) Decreases the preceding behavior Negative Punishment (pleasant stimulus removed or withheld) Decreases the preceding behavior
Positive Reinforcement Examples ActionConsequenceIncrease in Behavior Dog looks for a bone at the neighbor’s house. Neighbor throws dog a bone. Dog will return to neighbor’s home in search of a bone.
Positive Reinforcement Examples ActionConsequenceIncrease in Behavior A student studies for a test. The student earns and A+ on the test. The student will study again.
Positive Reinforcement Examples ActionConsequenceIncrease in Behavior A student takes a psychology class. The student really enjoys and learns a lot from the psychology class ! The student will probably take another psychology class later!
Negative Reinforcement Examples ActionConsequenceIncrease in Behavior The little boy whines when he is supposed to eat chopped liver. His parents take away the chopped liver. The little boy will whine to get his way again.
Negative Reinforcement Examples ActionConsequenceIncrease in Behavior Sarah cries when the doctor tries to give her a shot. The doctor decided not to give her a shot. Sarah will probably cry to avoid unpleasant situations in the future.
Negative Reinforcement Examples ActionConsequenceIncrease in Behavior Jennie is pulled over for speeding and cries. The police officer decides not to give Mrs. Gallagher a speeding ticket. Jennie will probably cry to avoid tickets in the future.
Negative Reinforcement Examples Taking an aspirin to relieve a headache. Hurrying home in the winter to get out of the cold. Giving in to an argument or to a dog’s begging. Fanning oneself to escape the heat. Leaving a movie theater if the movie is bad. Smoking in order to relieve anxiety. Following prison rules in order to be released from confinement. Feigning a stomachache in order to avoid school. Putting on a car safety belt to stop an irritating buzz. Turning down the volume of a very loud radio. Putting up an umbrella to escape the rain. Saying “uncle” to stop being beaten.
Positive Punishment Examples ActionConsequenceDecrease in Behavior Joe misses 3 free throws in the basketball game. Joe must run three sprints after the game. Joe will be less likely to miss free throws in the next basketball game.
Positive Punishment Examples ActionConsequenceDecrease in Behavior Quinn touched a hot pan. Quinn’s finger is burnt. Quinn will not touch the hot pan again.
Negative Punishment Examples ActionConsequenceDecrease in Behavior Mr. Spooner speeds. Mr. Spooner has to pay for an expensive speeding ticket (money is taken away). Mr. Spooner will probably not speed in the near future!
Negative Punishment Examples ActionConsequenceDecrease in Behavior A child misbehaves in a restaurant. Her mother will not let her order dessert. The child will be less likely to misbehave in the future.
Negative Punishment Examples ActionConsequenceDecrease in Behavior Quinn pushes Meggie. Quinn has to sit in timeout. Quinn will be less likely to push Meggie again.
BE CAREFUL, OPERANT CONDITIONING VARIES WITH THE INDIVIDUAL…
ActionConsequencesBehavior? Kaitlin talks during class. Teacher reprimands Kaitlin for talking. P0SITIVE REINFORCEMENT? Kaitlin really wants attention, she will be more like to talk in class again.
ActionConsequencesBehavior? Kaitlin talks during class. Teacher reprimands Kaitlin for talking. PUNISHMENT? Kaitlin wants the teacher’s approval, she will be less likely to talk in class again.
ActionConsequencesBehavior? Kaitlin talks during class. Kaitlin gets a detention. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT? Kaitlin really needs quiet time to do her homework after school.
ActionConsequencesBehavior? Kaitlin talks during class. Kaitlin gets a detention. PUNISHMENT? Kaitlin has a busy after school schedule and may be kicked off the team.
Classifying Consequences What type of operant conditioning is it?
Positive Reinforcement A rat presses a bar and receives a food pellet. ADDING a pleasant consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
Positive Punishment A child swears and is spanked. ADDING an unpleasant consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior
Negative Punishment A child has her bike taken away for crashing it. SUBTRACTING a pleasant consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior
Negative Punishment A teenager is put on restriction for keeping the car out too late. SUBTRACTING a pleasant consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior
Negative Reinforcement A child swims three more laps just so he can stop swimming which he hates. SUBTRACTING an unpleasant consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
Positive Reinforcement You study and earn an A. ADDING a pleasant consequences that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
Positive Punishment You party all night and get an F. ADDING an unpleasant consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior
Positive Punishment You are caught speeding and are given a ticket by the highway patrol. ADDING an unpleasant consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior
Negative Punishment A child is acting up in class and is sent to the corner of the room for 10 minutes. SUBTRACTING a pleasant consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior
Negative Reinforcement You clean up your room to avoid your mom’s nagging. SUBTRACTING an unpleasant consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
Negative Reinforcement Since you find that aspirin relieves your headaches, you find yourself taking it every time you feel a headache coming on. SUBTRACTING an unpleasant consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
Negative Reinforcement Whenever shock is applied to a rat’s feet, it presses a lever to stop it. SUBTRACTING an unpleasant consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
Negative Reinforcement A rat has learned to press a lever whenever a light comes on in order to prevent shock from ever being applied. SUBTRACTING an unpleasant consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
Positive Reinforcement Every time a child says the words “mommy” or “daddy,” both parents get very excited and pay extra attention to him. Soon the child is saying these words more and more. ADDING a pleasant consequences that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
Classical or Operant? Identification Activity
Decide CC or OC If the situation is an example of classical conditioning, label the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR. If the situation is an example of operant conditioning, decide which of the four consequences applies (positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, or negative punishment).
Scene One A very bright (mildly painful) light is turned on a rat. The rat has learned that he can turn off the light by pressing a lever on the other side of his cage. As soon as the light comes on, the rat runs across the room and presses the lever. –Operant Conditioning –Negative Reinforcement
Scene Two When a mother strokes her infant’s skin, the stroking creates pleasure responses in the baby. After this goes on for many days, that baby begins to show pleasure responses –Classical Conditioning –UCS- stroking –UCR- pleasure –CS- mother –CR- pleasure
Scene Three A patient in a mental hospital is very disruptive at meal times. She grabs food from the plates of those sitting near her and tries to cram the food in her mouth. Because this behavior of stealing food is very undesirable, a plan is developed whereby every time the patient steals food from other plates, she is immediately taken to a room without food. –Operant Conditioning –Negative Punishment
Scene Four Johnny has gotten into a habit of yelling “Bye, Mom” and then slamming the door very loudly in his hurry to leave for school in the morning. The door slam causes his mother to flinch. After several days of the procedure, Johnny’s mother begins to flinch at the sound of her son’s words, “Bye, Mom.” –Classical Conditioning –UCS- door slam –UCR- flinching –CS- “Bye, Mom” –CR- flinching
Scene Five Imagine you have a friend who keeps the temperature in her home so high that each occasion on which you visit her you find yourself perspiring. The last time you visited her, you noticed that you began to perspire and became uncomfortable as soon as you saw her house (before you even got inside). –Classical Conditioning –UCS- heat –UCR- perspiration –CS- sight of friend’s house –CR- perspiration
Scene Six Fred leaves his clothes and toys all over his room. It seems that the only time he cleans up his room is when his mother yells at him. When she yells at him, Fred picks up his clothes and puts away his toys. –Operant Conditioning –Negative Reinforcement
Scene Seven Mr. & Mrs. Jones are having a heated argument that both are finding unpleasant. Mr. Jones gets up and leaves the room, closing the door behind him. This has the effect of terminating the argument. From then on, every time Mrs. Jones raises her voice, Mr. Jones leaves the room. –Operant Conditioning –Negative Reinforcement
Scene Eight A husband who usually ignores his wife still likes to think of himself as an understanding man. So, whenever his wife complains that her heart condition (which has no medical cause) is giving her pain, he becomes attentive and tries to comfort her. This responsiveness doesn’t seem to help much: her reports of heart trouble just increase. –Operant Conditioning –Positive Reinforcement
Operant vs. Classical Conditioning Goal –The goal of operant conditioning is to increase or decrease the rate of a response –The goal of classical conditioning is to create a new response to a neutral stimulus Voluntary or involuntary response –In operant conditioning, the individual must first perform a voluntary response before getting a reward –In classical conditioning, physiological reflexes (involuntary responses) are triggered by a stimulus
Schedules of Reinforcement Schedule of Reinforcement –A program or rule that determines how and when the occurrence of a response will be followed by a reinforcer Continuous reinforcement –Every occurrence of the operant response is reinforced Partial reinforcement –Responses are reinforced only some of the time
Fixed-Ratio Reinforcement given after a specific number of correct responses Required number of correct responses for reinforcement does not change Example: Every 4th correct response is rewarded
Fixed-Interval First correct response after a certain amount of time has passed is reinforced Required amount of time does not change
Variable-Ratio Reinforcement is given after a certain number of correct responses Required number of correct responses for reinforcement changes constantly Example: Slot machines in Las Vegas operate on a variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement
Variable Interval First correct response after a set amount of time has passed is reinforced Required amount of time changes constantly
Schedules of Reinforcement Activity Identify the Schedule (X2)
Scene 1 Kimmy loves to go bowling and get strikes. She may roll the bowling ball three times to get a strike. Sometimes, she only needs to roll the bowling ball once to get a strike. –Steady or sporadic reinforcement? Sporadic- Variable –Reinforced contingent on time or number of responses? Number of response- Ratio VARIABLE RATIO
Scene 2 Jacob gets paid $10.00 for every hours he works. Jacob would like to make more, but no matter how productive he is, he only receives $10.00 per hour. –Steady or sporadic reinforcement? Steadily- fixed –Reinforced contingent on time or number of responses? Time- interval FIXED INTERVAL
Scene 3 Marissa gets praise from her parents every now and then. She never knows when she will get praised. She may have to wait two months, or only a week. –Steady or sporadic reinforcement? Sporadic- Variable –Reinforced contingent on time or number of responses? Time- interval VARIABLE INTERVAL
Scene 4 Ervin has figured out that every time he says, “I love you,” to his girlfriend, his girlfriend kisses him. This inspires Ervin to tell her that he loves her all the time. –Steady or sporadic reinforcement? Steadily- fixed –Reinforced contingent on time or number of responses? Number of responses- ratio FIXED RATIO
Scene 5 If Little Amber is good at the store, her dad might give her a lollipop. Sometimes she has to be good on two trips to the store, and sometimes only one trip to receive her lollipop. –Steady or sporadic reinforcement? Sporadic- variable –Reinforced contingent on time or number of responses? Number of responses- ratio VARIABLE RATIO
Scene 6 Paulie pledges to read two books every month. For each month he accomplishes his task, he receives points that he can redeem for prizes. –Steady or sporadic reinforcement? Steadily- fixed –Reinforced contingent on time or number of responses? Time- interval FIXED INTERVAL
Most Effective? Which type of schedule do you think is the most effective?
Operant Conditioning Concepts Generalization –An animal or person emits the same response to similar stimuli –Young child generalizes the word “Daddy” to all males Discrimination –A response is emitted in the presence of a stimulus that is reinforced and not in the presence of unreinforced stimuli –Parents reinforce the child saying “Daddy” in the presence of their real father, but do not reinforce the child when she calls strangers “Daddy” Extinction –Reduction in an operant response when it is no longer followed by a reinforcer Spontaneous recovery –Temporary recovery in the rate of responding
Power of Immediate Reinforcement Intrapersonal Activity 21 3
Cognitive Learning Cognitive learning involves mental processes such as attention & memory Cognitive map –Mental representation in the brain of the layout of an environment and its features Social cognitive learning –Results from watching, imitating, and modeling –Does not require the observer to perform any observable behavior or receive any observable reward
Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory 4 Processes Albert Bandura: Identified four required factors for observational learning Attention –Observer must pay attention to what the model says or does Memory –Observer must remember the information so that it can be retrieved and used later Imitation –Observer must be able to use the remembered information to guide his/her own actions and imitate the model’s behavior Motivation –Observer must have some reason or incentive to imitate the model’s behavior
Bandura’s Famous Bobo Doll ExperimentBobo Examined the influence of observational learning on aggressiveness in children All three groups viewed a film of an adult punching and verbally abusing a ‘Bobo Doll’ –Group One: Adult was rewarded –Group Two: Adult was punished –Group Three: No consequences for the adult After the film, the children played in a room with toys (including a Bobo doll Adult rewarded group was most aggressive This showed that operant conditioning can take place through observation alone!!! Applications?
Latent Learning Learning that is not revealed in performance immediately Revealed later when the behavior is reinforced –Panic on test? Learning-performance distinction- learning may occur but may not always be measured by, or immediately evident in, performance
Tolman Rat Study –Tolman Rat Study: To prove that learning can be latent (hidden), Tolman had three groups of rats run through mazes for 10 days Group One: Rewarded for running through maze to end Group Two: Un-rewarded Group Three: Un-rewarded for 10 days/rewarded on the 11th –The rats in group one (rewarded) learned to run through the maze with few errors –The rats in groups two and three (no reward) did not run through the maze with ease – On day 11, Tolman began rewarding Group Two. Once rewarded, these rats instantly became as efficient as the group that had been rewarded all along!
Social Cognitive Learning: Decreases the Fear of Snakes Subjects with an intense fear of snakes were chosen for participation After watching a model handle a 4-foot snake, one group was invited to move closer to the snake Subjects were invited to touch the snake The group who watched the live model scored an average of 27 on the 29-step approach scale Source: Bar graph data from “Relative Efficacy of Desensitization and Modeling Approaches for Inducing Behavior, Affective and Attitudinal Changes” by A. Bandura, E. B. Blanchard & B. Ritter, 1969, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 13, 173-179.
Imprinting Inherited tendencies that are displayed in newborn animals when they encounter certain stimuli in their environment –Chicks, goslings, and ducks follow the first moving object they see Sensitive/Critical period –Relatively brief time during which learning is most likely to occur
Prepared Learning Innate tendency of animals to recognize, attend to, and store certain cues over others Nutcrackers have amazing memory to hide and find hundreds of hidden stores of food Humans are biologically prepared to make sounds
Teaching Challenge Teach Skill Through Modeling
Behavior Modification Treatment that changes problems or undesirable behaviors by using principles of learning based on operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and social cognitive learning Autism –Marked by especially abnormal or impaired development in social interactions and communication abilities –Signs usually appear when a child is 2 or 3 years old Dr. Lovaas’ training program uses behavior modification to teach autistic children language and social skills as well as self-help behaviors
Assignment Personal Change Project 21 12
Biofeedback Training procedure through which a person is made aware of his/her physiological responses such as muscle activity, heart rate, blood pressure, or temperature After becoming aware of these physiological responses, the person tries to control them to decrease psychosomatic problems Often used in conjunction with other types of medical treatment or psychotherapy