2Thorndike’s Law of Effect Behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened while behaviors followed by negative consequences are weakened
3Skinner’s Operant Conditioning An operant response is a response that can be modified by its consequences and is a meaningful unit of ongoing behavior that can be easily measuredOperant conditioning focuses on how consequences affect behaviorSource: Based on Behavior of Organisms, by B. F. Skinner, Appleton-Century-Crofts.
6Reinforcement & Punishment Reinforcement (Strengthens Behavior)A consequence that occurs after a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur againPunishment (Weakens Behavior)A consequence that occurs after a behavior and decreases the chance that the behavior will occur again
7Reinforcement & Punishment Reinforcement (Strengthens Behavior)A consequence that occurs after a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur againPositive reinforcementpresentation of a stimulus that increases the probability that the behavior will occur againNegative reinforcementan aversive stimulus whose removal increases the likelihood that the preceding response will occur again
8Reinforcement & Punishment Punishment (Weakens Behavior)A consequence that occurs after a behavior and decreases the chance that the behavior will occur againPositive punishmentPresenting an aversive stimulus after a responseIt decreases the chances that a response will recurNegative punishmentRemoving a reinforcing stimulus after a response
9Clarification of Terms Reinforcement vs. PunishmentReinforcement- Strengthens preceding behaviorPunishment- Weakens preceding behaviorPositive vs. NegativePositive- adding/ introducing a stimulusNegative- subtracting/ taking away a stimulus
10Examples of Operant Conditioning: Toilet Training Target behaviorGoal is for Sheryl to urinate in the toiletPreparationGive Sheryl a large glass of apple juiceReinforcersEach time Sheryl performs the desired behavior, she receives an immediate reinforcerShapingEach time Sheryl performs a step that leads up to using the toilet, she receives reinforcement
15Primary vs. Secondary Reinforcers Primary reinforcerStimulus that is innately satisfying and requires no learning to become pleasurableFood, water, and sexSecondary reinforcerStimulus that has acquired its reinforcing power through experienceCoupons, money, and grades
16Consequences Positive Reinforcement (pleasant stimulus applied) Increases the preceding behaviorNegative Reinforcement(unpleasant stimulus removed or withheld)Positive Punishment(unpleasant stimulus applied)Decreases the preceding behaviorNegative Punishment(pleasant stimulus removed or withheld)
17Positive Reinforcement Examples ActionConsequenceIncrease in BehaviorDog looks for a bone at the neighbor’s house.Neighbor throws dog a bone.Dog will return to neighbor’s home in search of a bone.
18Positive Reinforcement Examples ActionConsequenceIncrease in BehaviorA student studies for a test.The student earns and A+ on the test.The student will study again.
19Positive Reinforcement Examples ActionConsequenceIncrease in BehaviorA student takes a psychology class.The student really enjoys and learns a lot from the psychology class !The student will probably take another psychology class later!
20Negative Reinforcement Examples ActionConsequenceIncrease in BehaviorThe little boy whines when he is supposed to eat chopped liver.His parents take away the chopped liver.The little boy will whine to get his way again.
21Negative Reinforcement Examples ActionConsequenceIncrease in BehaviorSarah cries when the doctor tries to give her a shot.The doctor decided not to give her a shot.Sarah will probably cry to avoid unpleasant situations in the future.
22Negative Reinforcement Examples ActionConsequenceIncrease in BehaviorJennie is pulled over for speeding and cries.The police officer decides not to give Mrs. Gallagher a speeding ticket.Jennie will probably cry to avoid tickets in the future.
23Negative Reinforcement Examples Taking an aspirin to relieve a headache.Hurrying home in the winter to get out of the cold.Giving in to an argument or to a dog’s begging.Fanning oneself to escape the heat.Leaving a movie theater if the movie is bad.Smoking in order to relieve anxiety.Following prison rules in order to be released from confinement.Feigning a stomachache in order to avoid school.Putting on a car safety belt to stop an irritating buzz.Turning down the volume of a very loud radio.Putting up an umbrella to escape the rain.Saying “uncle” to stop being beaten.
24Positive Punishment Examples ActionConsequenceDecrease in BehaviorJoe misses 3 free throws in the basketball game.Joe must run three sprints after the game.Joe will be less likely to miss free throws in the next basketball game.
25Positive Punishment Examples ActionConsequenceDecrease in BehaviorMeggie touches electrical outlet.Meggie experiences mildly painful shock.Meggie won’t touch the outlet again.
26Positive Punishment Examples ActionConsequenceDecrease in BehaviorQuinn touched a hot pan.Quinn’s finger is burnt.Quinn will not touch the hot pan again.
27Negative Punishment Examples ActionConsequenceDecrease in BehaviorMr. Spooner speeds.Mr. Spooner has to pay for an expensive speeding ticket (money is taken away).Mr. Spooner will probably not speed in the near future!
28Negative Punishment Examples ActionConsequenceDecrease in BehaviorA child misbehaves in a restaurant.Her mother will not let her order dessert.The child will be less likely to misbehave in the future.
29Negative Punishment Examples ActionConsequenceDecrease in BehaviorQuinn pushes Meggie.Quinn has to sit in timeout.Quinn will be less likely to push Meggie again.
30OPERANT CONDITIONING VARIES WITH THE INDIVIDUAL… BE CAREFUL,OPERANT CONDITIONING VARIES WITH THE INDIVIDUAL…
31Kaitlin talks during class. Teacher reprimands Kaitlin for talking. ActionConsequencesBehavior?Kaitlin talks during class.Teacher reprimands Kaitlin for talking.P0SITIVE REINFORCEMENT? Kaitlin really wants attention, she will be more like to talk in class again.
32Kaitlin talks during class. Teacher reprimands Kaitlin for talking. ActionConsequencesBehavior?Kaitlin talks during class.Teacher reprimands Kaitlin for talking.PUNISHMENT? Kaitlin wants the teacher’s approval, she will be less likely to talk in class again.
33Kaitlin talks during class. Kaitlin gets a detention. ActionConsequencesBehavior?Kaitlin talks during class.Kaitlin gets a detention.POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT? Kaitlin really needs quiet time to do her homework after school.
34Kaitlin talks during class. Kaitlin gets a detention. ActionConsequencesBehavior?Kaitlin talks during class.Kaitlin gets a detention.PUNISHMENT? Kaitlin has a busy after school schedule and may be kicked off the team.
35Classifying Consequences What type of operant conditioning is it?
37Positive Reinforcement A rat presses a bar and receives a food pellet.ADDING a pleasant consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
38Positive Punishment A child swears and is spanked. ADDING an unpleasant consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior
39Negative Punishment A child has her bike taken away for crashing it. SUBTRACTING a pleasant consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior
40Negative PunishmentA teenager is put on restriction for keeping the car out too late.SUBTRACTING a pleasant consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior
41Negative Reinforcement A child swims three more laps just so he can stop swimming which he hates.SUBTRACTING an unpleasant consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
42Positive Reinforcement You study and earn an A.ADDING a pleasant consequences that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
43Positive Punishment You party all night and get an F. ADDING an unpleasant consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior
44Positive PunishmentYou are caught speeding and are given a ticket by the highway patrol.ADDING an unpleasant consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior
45Negative PunishmentA child is acting up in class and is sent to the corner of the room for 10 minutes.SUBTRACTING a pleasant consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior
46Negative Reinforcement You clean up your room to avoid your mom’s nagging.SUBTRACTING an unpleasant consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
47Negative Reinforcement Since you find that aspirin relieves your headaches, you find yourself taking it every time you feel a headache coming on.SUBTRACTING an unpleasant consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
48Negative Reinforcement Whenever shock is applied to a rat’s feet, it presses a lever to stop it.SUBTRACTING an unpleasant consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
49Negative Reinforcement A rat has learned to press a lever whenever a light comes on in order to prevent shock from ever being applied.SUBTRACTING an unpleasant consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
50Positive Reinforcement Every time a child says the words “mommy” or “daddy,” both parents get very excited and pay extra attention to him. Soon the child is saying these words more and more.ADDING a pleasant consequences that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
51Identification Activity Classical or Operant?Identification Activity
52Decide CC or OCIf the situation is an example of classical conditioning, label the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR.If the situation is an example of operant conditioning, decide which of the four consequences applies (positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, or negative punishment).
53Scene OneA very bright (mildly painful) light is turned on a rat. The rat has learned that he can turn off the light by pressing a lever on the other side of his cage. As soon as the light comes on, the rat runs across the room and presses the lever.Operant ConditioningNegative Reinforcement
54Scene TwoWhen a mother strokes her infant’s skin, the stroking creates pleasure responses in the baby. After this goes on for many days, that baby begins to show pleasure responsesClassical ConditioningUCS- strokingUCR- pleasureCS- motherCR- pleasure
55Scene ThreeA patient in a mental hospital is very disruptive at meal times. She grabs food from the plates of those sitting near her and tries to cram the food in her mouth. Because this behavior of stealing food is very undesirable, a plan is developed whereby every time the patient steals food from other plates, she is immediately taken to a room without food.Operant ConditioningNegative Punishment
56Scene FourJohnny has gotten into a habit of yelling “Bye, Mom” and then slamming the door very loudly in his hurry to leave for school in the morning. The door slam causes his mother to flinch. After several days of the procedure, Johnny’s mother begins to flinch at the sound of her son’s words, “Bye, Mom.”Classical ConditioningUCS- door slamUCR- flinchingCS- “Bye, Mom”CR- flinching
57Scene FiveImagine you have a friend who keeps the temperature in her home so high that each occasion on which you visit her you find yourself perspiring. The last time you visited her, you noticed that you began to perspire and became uncomfortable as soon as you saw her house (before you even got inside).Classical ConditioningUCS- heatUCR- perspirationCS- sight of friend’s houseCR- perspiration
58Scene SixFred leaves his clothes and toys all over his room. It seems that the only time he cleans up his room is when his mother yells at him. When she yells at him, Fred picks up his clothes and puts away his toys.Operant ConditioningNegative Reinforcement
59Scene SevenMr. & Mrs. Jones are having a heated argument that both are finding unpleasant. Mr. Jones gets up and leaves the room, closing the door behind him. This has the effect of terminating the argument. From then on, every time Mrs. Jones raises her voice, Mr. Jones leaves the room.Operant ConditioningNegative Reinforcement
60Scene EightA husband who usually ignores his wife still likes to think of himself as an understanding man. So, whenever his wife complains that her heart condition (which has no medical cause) is giving her pain, he becomes attentive and tries to comfort her. This responsiveness doesn’t seem to help much: her reports of heart trouble just increase.Operant ConditioningPositive Reinforcement
61Operant vs. Classical Conditioning GoalThe goal of operant conditioning is to increase or decrease the rate of a responseThe goal of classical conditioning is to create a new response to a neutral stimulusVoluntary or involuntary responseIn operant conditioning, the individual must first perform a voluntary response before getting a rewardIn classical conditioning, physiological reflexes (involuntary responses) are triggered by a stimulus
62Schedules of Reinforcement Schedule of ReinforcementA program or rule that determines how and when the occurrence of a response will be followed by a reinforcerContinuous reinforcementEvery occurrence of the operant response is reinforcedPartial reinforcementResponses are reinforced only some of the time
63Fixed-RatioReinforcement given after a specific number of correct responsesRequired number of correct responses for reinforcement does not changeExample: Every 4th correct response is rewarded
64Fixed-IntervalFirst correct response after a certain amount of time has passed is reinforcedRequired amount of time does not change
65Variable-RatioReinforcement is given after a certain number of correct responsesRequired number of correct responses for reinforcement changes constantlyExample: Slot machines in Las Vegas operate on a variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement
66Variable IntervalFirst correct response after a set amount of time has passed is reinforcedRequired amount of time changes constantly
68Schedules of Reinforcement Activity Identify the Schedule (X2)
69Scene 1Kimmy loves to go bowling and get strikes. She may roll the bowling ball three times to get a strike. Sometimes, she only needs to roll the bowling ball once to get a strike.Steady or sporadic reinforcement?Sporadic- VariableReinforced contingent on time or number of responses?Number of response- RatioVARIABLE RATIO
70Scene 2Jacob gets paid $10.00 for every hours he works. Jacob would like to make more, but no matter how productive he is, he only receives $10.00 per hour.Steady or sporadic reinforcement?Steadily- fixedReinforced contingent on time or number of responses?Time- intervalFIXED INTERVAL
71Scene 3Marissa gets praise from her parents every now and then. She never knows when she will get praised. She may have to wait two months, or only a week.Steady or sporadic reinforcement?Sporadic- VariableReinforced contingent on time or number of responses?Time- intervalVARIABLE INTERVAL
72Scene 4Ervin has figured out that every time he says, “I love you,” to his girlfriend, his girlfriend kisses him. This inspires Ervin to tell her that he loves her all the time.Steady or sporadic reinforcement?Steadily- fixedReinforced contingent on time or number of responses?Number of responses- ratioFIXED RATIO
73Scene 5If Little Amber is good at the store, her dad might give her a lollipop. Sometimes she has to be good on two trips to the store, and sometimes only one trip to receive her lollipop.Steady or sporadic reinforcement?Sporadic- variableReinforced contingent on time or number of responses?Number of responses- ratioVARIABLE RATIO
74Scene 6Paulie pledges to read two books every month. For each month he accomplishes his task, he receives points that he can redeem for prizes.Steady or sporadic reinforcement?Steadily- fixedReinforced contingent on time or number of responses?Time- intervalFIXED INTERVAL
75Which type of schedule do you think is the most effective?
76Operant Conditioning Concepts GeneralizationAn animal or person emits the same response to similar stimuliYoung child generalizes the word “Daddy” to all malesDiscriminationA response is emitted in the presence of a stimulus that is reinforced and not in the presence of unreinforced stimuliParents reinforce the child saying “Daddy” in the presence of their real father, but do not reinforce the child when she calls strangers “Daddy”ExtinctionReduction in an operant response when it is no longer followed by a reinforcerSpontaneous recoveryTemporary recovery in the rate of responding
77Power of Immediate Reinforcement Intrapersonal Activity 21 3
79Cognitive LearningCognitive learning involves mental processes such as attention & memoryCognitive mapMental representation in the brain of the layout of an environment and its featuresSocial cognitive learningResults from watching, imitating, and modelingDoes not require the observer to perform any observable behavior or receive any observable reward
80Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory 4 Processes Albert Bandura: Identified four required factors for observational learningAttentionObserver must pay attention to what the model says or doesMemoryObserver must remember the information so that it can be retrieved and used laterImitationObserver must be able to use the remembered information to guide his/her own actions and imitate the model’s behaviorMotivationObserver must have some reason or incentive to imitate the model’s behavior
81Bandura’s Famous Bobo Doll Experiment Examined the influence of observational learning on aggressiveness in childrenAll three groups viewed a film of an adult punching and verbally abusing a ‘Bobo Doll’Group One: Adult was rewardedGroup Two: Adult was punishedGroup Three: No consequences for the adultAfter the film, the children played in a room with toys (including a Bobo dollAdult rewarded group was most aggressiveThis showed that operant conditioning can take place through observation alone!!!Applications?
82Latent LearningLearning that is not revealed in performance immediatelyRevealed later when the behavior is reinforcedPanic on test?Learning-performance distinction- learning may occur but may not always be measured by, or immediately evident in, performance
83Tolman Rat StudyTolman Rat Study: To prove that learning can be latent (hidden), Tolman had three groups of rats run through mazes for 10 daysGroup One: Rewarded for running through maze to endGroup Two: Un-rewardedGroup Three: Un-rewarded for 10 days/rewarded on the 11thThe rats in group one (rewarded) learned to run through the maze with few errorsThe rats in groups two and three (no reward) did not run through the maze with easeOn day 11, Tolman began rewarding Group Two. Once rewarded, these rats instantly became as efficient as the group that had been rewarded all along!
84Social Cognitive Learning: Decreases the Fear of Snakes Subjects with an intense fear of snakes were chosen for participationAfter watching a model handle a 4-foot snake, one group was invited to move closer to the snakeSubjects were invited to touch the snakeThe group who watched the live model scored an average of 27 on the 29-step approach scaleSource: Bar graph data from “Relative Efficacy of Desensitization and Modeling Approaches for Inducing Behavior, Affective and Attitudinal Changes” by A. Bandura, E. B. Blanchard & B. Ritter, 1969, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 13,
85ImprintingInherited tendencies that are displayed in newborn animals when they encounter certain stimuli in their environmentChicks, goslings, and ducks follow the first moving object they seeSensitive/Critical periodRelatively brief time during which learning is most likely to occur
86Prepared LearningInnate tendency of animals to recognize, attend to, and store certain cues over othersNutcrackers have amazing memory to hide and find hundreds of hidden stores of foodHumans are biologically prepared to make sounds
89Teach Skill Through Modeling Teaching ChallengeTeach Skill Through Modeling
90Behavior Modification Treatment that changes problems or undesirable behaviors by using principles of learning based on operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and social cognitive learningAutismMarked by especially abnormal or impaired development in social interactions and communication abilitiesSigns usually appear when a child is 2 or 3 years oldDr. Lovaas’ training program uses behavior modification to teach autistic children language and social skills as well as self-help behaviors
92BiofeedbackTraining procedure through which a person is made aware of his/her physiological responses such as muscle activity, heart rate, blood pressure, or temperatureAfter becoming aware of these physiological responses, the person tries to control them to decrease psychosomatic problemsOften used in conjunction with other types of medical treatment or psychotherapy
93Conditioning the Instructor 21 Class ChallengeConditioning the Instructor 21