2 Manual Handling OBJECTIVES To promote awareness of the benefits of correct Manual Handling.To examine the consequences of failing to under take Manual Handling tasks correctly.
3 Manual Handling COURSE OUT LINE WATCH VIDEO DISCUSS ASPECTS OF VIDEO THEORYPRACTICAL DEMONSTRATIONPRACTICAL TRAININGSUMMARYTEST
4 Manual Handling INTRODUCTION Efficient Manual Handling involves the movement of a load utilizing the KINETIC METHOD.This involves the use of body and muscles in a relaxed and efficient way.30% of all reported industrial injuries are Manual Handling related.There are 22,000 MANUAL HANDLING injuries each year in the U.K. alone.Average time off work 14 days.Besides back injuries there are also hernias, sprains and strains to the arms and legs.
5 Manual Handling STRUCTURE OF THE SPINE The spine consists of 33 cylinders of Bone called vertebrae.7 - Cervical vertebrae - movable.12 - Thoracic vertebrae - movable.5 - Lumber vertebrae - movable.5 - Sacrum verb - fused.4 - Coccyx vertebrae - fused.Vertebrae become larger in the lower lumber region.
6 Manual HandlingVertebrae consist of the vertebral and posterior vertebral arch which surrounded the spinal canal.There are 22 interverebral discs which are located between the movable vertebrae in the spine.Each disc has two layers - A soft gel-like inner layer and a tough fibrous outer layer.When a load is applied to the spine the discs compress thus cushioning the vertebrae while transmitting load.When the trunk leans sideways, backwards or forwards there an immediate muscle activity to return and maintain its upright posture.The combined spine and trunk system is flexible but fully controlled.The discs may degenerate with aging e.g. The soft center hardens.
7 Manual Handling LIFTING RELATED INJURIES Damage to Intervertebral discsThe most common cause of back injury is caused by bending to lift a heavy load.The bending action compresses the front of the disc resulting in the disc protruding (slipped disc).A bent back action combined with a twisting action can result in a ruptured disc where the fibro-elastic layer is torn and the softer inside part escapes.Trapped nerves and sciatica.When you lift with a bent back the joints of the vertebrae are separated and the nerves can be trapped when the back is straightened.Disc movement puts pressure on the spinal cord this results in a condition called sciatica.
8 Manual HandlingLong term spinal abuse and/or progressive degeneration can mean that even a light lift can cause damage.Stretching a muscle beyond its normal range can cause a strain.Excessive exertion can weaken a joint and related ligaments and cause a sprain.Lifting awkwardly can weaken the abdominal muscles and cause a rupture or hernia.Conclusions.Unsatisfactory lifting practices will cause long term pain and disability.
9 MECHANICS OF LIFTING Cantilever action. MANUAL HANDLING The effect of bending to lift a load is similar to that of a cantilever.A cantilever is similar to a beam clamed at one end in the horizontal position.The load exerted on the fixed (clamped) end depends on the weight and on the weights position on the beam, with it’s resulting lever action.CANTILEVERHEADSTRESSSPINEARMS
10 POSITION OF THE SPINE MANUAL HANDLING You should regard the lower lumber region as the fixed end of the beam.The force exerted on the lower lumber depends on the weight of the load and the distance of the load from the base of the spine.With the back straight and nearly vertical the horizontal distance is less therefore the force is small.When the back is bent and out of vertical the horizontal distance is greater thus force on the lower lumber region is considerable greater.The main downward forces exerted on the spine are.The weight of the trunk.The weight of the load.The weight of the head.The greater the horizontal distance these are from the base of the spine then the greater is the load.
11 MANUAL HANDLINGPOSITION OF THE SPINEWhen you lift a 40 kg. load the force is nine times greater if the back is bent. 360 kg.The main loading on the spine is borne by the vertebrae and discs of the lower lumber region.A bending action concentrates the load on a small area at the front of the discs.A sudden jerk at the start of the lift increases that load up to 10 times kg.
12 THE LEVER IS LONG THEREFORE THE LOAD IS GREATER MANUAL HANDLINGLEVERLOADTHE LEVER IS LONG THEREFORE THE LOAD IS GREATER
13 THE LEVER IS SHORTER THEREFORE THE LOAD IS LESS MANUAL HANDLINGLEVERLOADTHE LEVER IS SHORTER THEREFORE THE LOAD IS LESS
14 PREPARATION FOR LIFTING MANUAL HANDLINGPREPARATION FOR LIFTINGImportant checks- The load should be checked for accessibility, weight, center of gravity and any moving parts.Accessibility of load- Assess the position of the load with respect to nearby obstruction.- Adopt a position where the load can be lifted correctly and carried forward without obstruction.- Shift movable obstructions and slide load from structural obstructions.- Position the load so that it can be lifted and carried straight forward without any twisting movement.Testing the weight- Assess the weight of the load by lifting one side of the load using the correct lifting technique.- If a component part is being used to lift the load check that it is secure.- If the load is too heavy; get help or use mechanical aid.
15 PREPARATION FOR LIFTING MANUAL HANDLINGPREPARATION FOR LIFTINGCanter of gravity- Assess the position of the center of gravity of the load and lift the load in a way which keeps the center of gravity central to and close to the body.Moving parts- Check the load for any moving parts and do not use these as lifting points.- Use proper lifting handles if available or strong fixed points.
16 CORRECT LIFTING POSITION MANUAL HANDLINGCORRECT LIFTING POSITIONPosition of feet- The feet should be close to the load approximately hip width apart.- The lead foot should be slightly forward beside the load.- The weight of the load acts vertically downward therefore if the feet are too close together the center of gravity is outside of the base and balance is hard to maintain- If the feet are too far away from the load a bent back will result and the center of gravity will be too far forward.Position of the knees- The knees should be bent not far to keep the body at the correct height.- The load is lifted by straightening the knees using the legs and thigh muscles.
17 CORRECT LIFTING POSITION MANUAL HANDLINGCORRECT LIFTING POSITIONPosition of the back- The back should be kept as straight as possible but may be canted forward out of the vertical no more than an angle of about 15 to 20 deg.Position of the head and chin- The head should be raised by looking up and the chin pulled in. This helps lock the top of the spine thus keeping the back straight.Position of the arms- The arms should be kept as close to the body as possible.Correct grip- The load should be grasped with the palms of the hands and the root of the fingers.- The hands should be diagonally opposed.
18 MANUAL HANDLING10 POINT LIFTING GUIDEAssess the weight of the load - get help if needed. Use mechanical aids provided.Size up job - remove obstacles, note snags, ensure set down area is clear.Look for - splinters, projecting nails, wire and sharp edges, ware gloves.Stand close to the object - feet 20 cm to 30 cm apart, one foot in advance of the other, in the direction of travel.Chin in - avoid moving head backward or forward.Bend knees to a crouched position - keep back straight (not necessary vertical).Grip load at opposite corners with palm of hands and roots of the fingers, arms close to the body.Lift with thigh muscles, look up, straightened legs.Apply same principles to pushing, pulling, digging or shoveling.Use the reverse procedure to set down load.
19 Even a simple task can result in a serious injury if manual handling is not carried out correctly.
20 Housekeeping is a part of manual handling Housekeeping is a part of manual handling. Poor housekeeping will result in increased manual handling hazards.
21 You can get away with incorrect manual handling procedures many times in one day but eventually you will NOT get away with it and have an accident.
23 A perfect example of one right way to pull slips and one wrong way.
24 Planning and common sense being used for a manual handling job Planning and common sense being used for a manual handling job. What are four things these guys have done right?
25 THERE IS NO MAGIC JUST FOLLOW THE 10 POINTS. MANUAL HANDLINGSUMMERYOBJECTIVES.To promote awareness and the consequences of failing to use THE CORRECT LIFTING TECHNIQUES.Mechanics of lifting.Correct lifting position.10 Point guideline to MANUAL LIFTING.THERE IS NO MAGIC JUST FOLLOW THE 10 POINTS.