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Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper.

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Presentation on theme: "Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 1 Chapter 3: Principles of Intervention Planning Created by: Elizabeth A. Borreca, Teresa Langford and Ellen Stack University of St. Thomas, Houston, TX

2 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 2 Chapter 3: Outline Introduction Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Legal and Ethical Guidelines Effective Practices

3 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 3 Chapter 3: Objectives After completing this chapter, you should be able to: Describe six principles of applied behavior analysis and give examples from school situations. Describe professional, legal, and ethical guidelines affecting the use of behavioral interventions. Locate and use information systems and Internet services that provide intervention planning resources.

4 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 4 Chapter 3: Objectives Describe criteria for identifying effective (research- based) practices and list examples and nonexamples. Identify appropriate and inappropriate intervention alternatives for given behaviors and provide a rationale for each decision.

5 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 5 Case Study Marcia versus Ms. Hill: After reading the case study on page 68, discuss the following questions: How would you approach the problems that the teachers are having with Marcia? What are some possible reasons that Marcia is acting out? Why isn’t the time-out intervention working? Suggest some alternative intervention strategies.

6 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 6 Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Explain the relationship of human behavior to immediate environmental events Help explain:  The way behavior functions  The environmental factors that influence it  How to use this information to design interventions

7 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 7 Principles of ABA Under no circumstances should specific behavior analysis techniques be used by practitioners who do not thoroughly understand the principles on which they are based.

8 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 8 Principles of ABA 1. Behavior is controlled by its consequences 2. Behavior is strengthened or maintained by reinforcement 3. Behavior is weakened by withholding the consequences that have maintained it 4. Behavior is weakened by punishment

9 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 9 Principles of ABA 5. To effectively influence behavior, consequences must consistently and immediately follow the behavior they are meant to control. 6. Behavior is strengthened, weakened, or maintained by modeling.

10 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 10 Principles of ABA Principle 1: Behavior is controlled by its consequences Antecedent—a stimulus that precedes the behavior. It may or may not serve as a discriminative stimulus for that behavior. Consequence—stimulus that occurs contingent on a particular response

11 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 11 Principles of ABA Principle 1: Behavior is controlled by its consequences The student’s behavior will be influenced by an antecedent stimulus when there is a predictable relationship between the antecedent and a consequence. Behavior is under antecedent stimulus control when student responds appropriately to an antecedent stimulus without always having to experience a direct consequence for the behavior.

12 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 12 Principles of ABA Principle 1: Behavior is controlled by its consequences Establish Antecedent Stimulus Control: Have predictable consequences for students who do and do not follow directions Systematically apply positive consequences to appropriate responses made in the presence of stimuli

13 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 13 Principles of ABA Principle 1: Behavior is controlled by its consequences Shaping: Provide many systematic applications of consequences Reinforce approximations of desired behavior Develop a step-by-step approximation of the desired behavior and reinforce successive approximations Ex. Praise active student for remaining in seat for a few seconds

14 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 14 Principles of ABA Principle 1: Behavior is controlled by its consequences Use shaping when:  Behavioral expectations are well above student’s ability to perform the expected behavior  The teacher can settle for a lesser behavior while teaching and reinforcing the successive approximations Don’t use shaping for behaviors such as hitting, biting. You can’t reinforce successive approximations of not hitting such as hitting less hard!!!

15 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 15 Discussion List some behaviors that could be successive approximations of completing an assignment on time with 80% accuracy. What are some other desired student behaviors that might be reinforced using a shaping technique?

16 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 16 Principles of ABA Principle 1: Behavior is controlled by its consequences Consequences can affect behavior in three ways: Strengthen—increase the frequency or likelihood that the behavior will occur Weaken—decrease the frequency or likelihood that the behavior will occur Maintain—do not change the frequency or likelihood that the behavior will occur (Neutral consequences have no effect on the behavior)

17 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 17 Principles of ABA Principle 2: Behavior is strengthened or maintained by reinforcement Reinforcement can be positive or negative What is reinforcing for one student may not be reinforcing for another The most effective strategies for increasing a desired behavior are based on positive reinforcement

18 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 18 Principles of ABA Principle 2: Behavior is strengthened or maintained by reinforcement Positive Reinforcement: When the presentation of a consequence maintains or strengthens behavior over time What is reinforcing for one student may not be reinforcing for another

19 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 19 Principles of ABA Principle 2: Behavior is strengthened or maintained by reinforcement Negative Reinforcement: Avoiding or escaping an aversive stimulus that serves to strengthen or maintain a behavior over time

20 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 20 Discussion Go back to the case study of Marcia. What principle do you think accounts for Marcia’s noncompliance?

21 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 21 Principles of ABA Principle 3: Behavior is weakened by withholding the consequences that have maintained it This process is called extinction It works if the consequences that are maintaining the behavior are known and able to be controlled

22 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 22 Principles of ABA Principle 3: Behavior is weakened by withholding the consequences that have maintained it Don’t use extinction for: Behavior you can’t identify or control the reinforcer  Social interactions between students  Bullying  Self-stimulatory behavior  Behaviors maintained by intermittent positive reinforcement such as out-of-seat behaviors that are maintained by some peer attention

23 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 23 Principles of ABA Principle 3: Behavior is weakened by withholding the consequences that have maintained it Give extinction time to work Expect an “extinction burst” which is a temporary increase in the behavior of concern Strategies to control teacher attention:  Become involved with another student or task  Recite something to yourself If you can’t ignore the behavior, don’t use extinction

24 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 24 Principles of ABA Principle 4: Behavior is weakened by punishment Punishment: Is a consequence Is defined by its effects on behavior Decreases the frequency of the behavior when it is applied Response cost is a form of punishment.

25 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 25 Discussion Refer to the case study about Marcia. If Marcia’s rate of office referrals is increasing over time, is sending her to the office a punishment?

26 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 26 Principles of ABA Principle 5: Consequences must follow the behavior they are meant to control  Contingency—planned, systematic relationship between a behavior and a consequence  Must be consistent to establish this relationship and increase stimulus control over student behavior

27 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 27 Principles of ABA Principle 6: Behavior is strengthened, weakened, or maintained by modeling. Demonstrating the behavior that is expected Children imitate the behavior of models who:  are similar to them  have high status  have been reinforced If model’s behavior is punished, imitators will suppress their behavior

28 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 28 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Behavioral Enhancement Procedures: Self-regulation Social reinforcement Modeling Contracting Reinforcements (activity, token, tangible, edible, tactile, sensory)

29 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 29 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Reductive Procedures: Differential reinforcement Extinction Verbal aversives Response cost Time-out Overcorrection Physical aversives

30 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 30 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Intrusiveness Extent to which interventions impinge on students’ bodies or rights Degree to which interventions interrupt regular educational activities

31 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 31 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Restrictiveness Extent to which the intervention inhibits students’ freedom to be treated like other pupils

32 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 32 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Intervention Packages Interventions are usually combined in “packages” to increase their effects on behavior

33 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 33 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Enhancement Procedure: Self-regulation includes three procedures: Self-monitoring Self-evaluation Self-reinforcement See chapters 7-10

34 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 34 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Enhancement Procedure: Social Reinforcement Verbal feedback—mild reinforcer Social attention and approval (praise)  Powerful reinforcer  Must be conditioned (paired) with established reinforcer (must be taught/learned)  Impact weakened if there are competing reinforcers  Impact strengthened when: Used contingently and immediately Specific to the behavior (see p. 76)

35 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 35 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Enhancement Procedure: Modeling Demonstrating the behavior that is expected Children imitate the behavior of models who:  are similar to them  have high status  have been reinforced If model’s behavior is punished, imitators will suppress their behavior

36 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 36 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Enhancement Procedure: Behavioral Contracting Formal written agreement between student and other person Specifies:  the behavior to be increased or decreased  consequences to be delivered  criterion for determining if contract fulfilled Can make high-probability behavior (favorite activity) contingent on low-probability behavior (difficult academic subject) Can choose reinforcers from a menu

37 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 37 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Enhancement Procedures: Types of Reinforcement Activity—academic tasks, games, art, free time Token—conditioned reinforcers such as tokens, tickets, points, chips that can be exchanged for backup reinforcers Tangible—nonedible items such as stickers, stars, toys

38 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 38 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Types of Reinforcement Edible—foods  In Texas, can’t give foods of minimal nutritional value (mnv) Tactile/sensory—  Vibration  Movement  Touch

39 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 39 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Using Reinforcers Identify reinforcers that are effective (what you think reinforces may not be reinforcing) Use reinforcer sampling—teach students to value token reinforcers by pairing with a social/tangible reinforcer Use tangible reinforcers intermittently or as a surprise Food reinforcers are not always effective if the students have different food preferences or if they become satiated

40 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 40 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Controlling Self-Stimulating Behavior Meet with parents and team to assess: Sensory consequences that appear to be reinforcing The impact of any interventions on development of more adaptive behaviors Develop interventions: Arrange for sensory reinforcer to follow desired behavior Example: If rubbing palms is reinforcing, rub student’s palms with a cloth after student complies with directive, completes activity

41 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 41 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Reduction Procedures Positive reinforcement may need to be used with reduction procedures for students with more significant behavior problems Use less intrusive and restrictive techniques Use reductive techniques in the context of systematic positive reinforcement at a rate of four positives for every aversive/negative

42 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 42 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Reduction Procedures From least to most intrusive and restrictive: Differential reinforcement Extinction Verbal reprimands Response cost Time-out

43 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 43 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Reduction Procedure: Differential Reinforcement  Procedure involves increasing reinforcement for replacement behaviors while reducing or eliminating reinforcement for unwanted behaviors Term reinforcement means increasing a behavior

44 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 44 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Types of Differential Reinforcement Differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior (DRL) Apply reinforcement when the rate of the targeted (unwanted) behavior occurs no more than a prespecified number of times Example: Reinforce student for talking out less than three times during English class

45 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 45 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Types of Differential Reinforcement Differential reinforcement of other behaviors (DRO) Reinforce student for not exhibiting the target (unwanted) behavior during a specified period of time. The rate is zero during the specified time Example—Reinforce student for not talking out at all during English class

46 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 46 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Types of Differential Reinforcement Differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors (DRI) Differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors (DRA) Reinforce student for exhibiting behaviors that are either incompatible or an alternative to the target (unwanted) behavior Example: Reinforce student for raising his hand and waiting to be called on during English class

47 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 47 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Differential Reinforcement Use DRL for minor behavior problems that can be tolerated at low rates Use DRO, DRI, or DRA for more severe behavior problems DRI and DRA may take longer or be ineffective for behaviors that have a long history of reinforcement

48 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 48 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Reduction Procedure: Extinction Works by withholding reinforcement Weak procedure for severe behaviors Ineffective if reinforcement is not under control of the teacher Effective when paired with a differential reinforcement procedure

49 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 49 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Sensory Extinction An intrusive procedure in which the sensory consequences of self-stimulating or self-injurious behaviors are masked so that reinforcement is withheld Example: covering tabletop with felt so the auditory feedback of spinning an object is withheld Limitation—more intrusive procedure

50 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 50 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Reduction Procedure: Verbal Aversive Provide immediate feedback that behavior is unacceptable Serve as discriminative stimuli that punishment contingencies are in effect Effective with mild to moderate behaviors Be brief, make eye contact, and deliver privately to avoid unintended reinforcing qualities of attention Delivered to one student; can make impact on others When associated with other aversive backup consequences (response cost, time-out), verbal aversives acquire conditioned aversive properties

51 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 51 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Reduction Procedure: Response Cost Loss of a reinforcer (not the one that is maintaining the behavior) contingent on an unwanted behavior Must give something to take something away Works well in conjunction with token system Plan system so that students don’t lose more than they gain To avoid arguments, make the response cost two items or tokens. When student willingly accepts the loss of two, he/she then earns back one item or token for cooperating with the consequence

52 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 52 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Reduction Procedure: Time-Out Time-out from positive reinforcement  Planned ignoring  Contingent observation  Exclusionary time-out  Seclusionary time-out

53 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 53 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Planned Ignoring Systematic withholding of social attention for the length of the time-out period Effective if teacher attention during time-in is associate with positive reinforcement

54 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 54 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Contingent Observation Student can remain in a position to observe the group (and continue to get instruction) but is not participating or receiving reinforcement for a period of time

55 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 55 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Exclusionary Time-Out Student is physically excluded from an ongoing activity Refer to the Texas Behavior Support Initiative from Senate Bill 1196 Refer to Commissioner’s Rules Procedure for Use of Restraint and Time-Out

56 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 56 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Seclusionary Time-Out Student is removed from instruction to a specified area such as a time-out room Refer to the Texas Behavior Support Initiative from Senate Bill 1196 Refer to Commissioner’s Rules Procedure for Use of Restraint and Time-Out

57 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 57 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Reduction Procedure: Overcorrection Positive Practice—student repeats a behavior as a consequence for displaying an unwanted behavior Example: When student engages in hand flapping (unwanted behavior), he repeatedly places hand on the desk (positive practice) Is aversive to students/staff Research is unclear as to efficacy

58 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 58 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Reduction Procedure: Overcorrection Restitutional overcorrection—student overcorrects the effect of the unwanted behavior on the environment Example: Student tears the papers off the bulletin board (unwanted behavior) and is directed to fix the bulletin board and straighten the classroom (overcorrection) Is aversive to students/staff

59 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 59 Systematic Procedures for Influencing Behavior Reduction Procedure: Physical Aversive Substances having aversive tastes, odors, cold water, and physical aggression have been used to reduce very severe maladaptive behaviors Professional organizations have policies against these approaches Corporal punishment is prohibited in most states and some Texas school districts  Lack of empirical studies support its effectiveness

60 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 60 Legal and Ethical Guidelines Become knowledgeable about position statements by professional organizations such as:  CEC  NASP  NEA Follow case law Follow school district policy and procedures Follow ARD committee decisions

61 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 61 Legal and Ethical Guidelines Is the intervention acceptable? Is it suitable for the general education classroom? Does it present unnecessary risks to pupils? Does it require too much teacher time? Does it have negative side effects on other pupils? Does the teacher have the skill to implement it?

62 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 62 Legal and Ethical Guidelines Effective Practices Use research-based practices See What Works Clearinghouse Steps to using research-based practices:  Assess student  Adjust interventions to fit needs of student  Train person who is delivering intervention  Apply intervention consistently with fidelity  Monitor the outcome

63 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 63 Summary Effective interventions are based on the context in which the behavior occurs. Research supports the principles of behavior that include procedures to increase and decrease the frequency of a behavior. Strategies to increase behavior are on a continuum from natural to contrived.

64 Mary Margaret Kerr and C. Michael Nelson Strategies for Addressing Behavior Problems in the Classroom, 5e Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. 64 Summary Strategies to decrease behavior are on a continuum arranged according to aversiveness and intrusiveness. Be aware of legal and ethical guidelines on the use of interventions especially when considering the use of aversive stimuli. Criteria are being developed to identify empirically validated practices.


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