2 Definition & Facts Defects that weaken arguments Common in politics andadvertisementsOften verypersuasive
3 Don’t weaken your argument with faulty reasoning!
4 When you attempt to employ logic to support claims in your papers, your reasoning is sometimes weakened because you are presenting fallacious arguments.It is important for you to be able to identify and eliminate fallacies in your writing.
5 Check this out! This fallacy is very common in advertising, as in this simpleexample.
6 Unchanged Since 1899(Reader's Digest, March, 1999, p. 15)
7 Hershey’s Advertisement Appeal to Tradition Any argument that defends a behavioror choice by pointing out that thebehavior or choice is a longstandingpractice. Unfortunately, many foolishand destructive behaviors are alsovery traditional, such as slavery,forced prostitution, and punishingchildren by hitting them withbelts.
15 ad hominem:logical fallacy in which the writerattacks the person who presentsthe issue rather than deal logicallywith the issue itself.
16 Example"Ignore what Professor Doe says about the origins of the Old Testament. I happen to know that Doe is an atheist."
17 What the heck does this mean? either-or fallacy
18 either-or fallacy:logical fallacy in which the writerstates that only two alternativesexist when in fact there are morethan two.
19 Example“Caldwell Hall is in bad shape. Either we tear it down and put up a new building, or we continue to risk students’ safety. Obviously we should not risk anyone’s safety, so we must tear the building down."
21 red herring:logical fallacy in which the writerdodges the real issue by drawingattention to an irrelevant issue(ignoring the question).
22 Example Real Example: Analysis: "No, no, he's a friend of mine. He's not a moron at all -- he's afriend. I had a good time with him today."Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien, responding toreports that his chief spokesman had called PresidentGeorge W. Bush a moron. (Newsweek, 2 Dec. 2002)Analysis:Perhaps it's true that Bush is his friend. Perhaps it'strue that they had a good time together. What has thatinformation got to do with answering the charge thatBush is a moron? Chretien is changing the subjectinstead of talking about Bush's intelligence.