2Review and OutlineThe polar front model (Norwegian model) of a developing mid-latitude cyclonic storm represents a simplified but useful model of how an ideal storm progresses through the stages of birth, maturity and dissipation.Cyclogenesis, lee-side lows, northeasters, bombs.For a surface mid-latitude cyclonic storm to form, there must be an area of upper-level divergence above the surface low. For the surface storm to intensify, this region of upper level divergence must be greater than surface convergence.When the polar-front jet stream develops into a looping wave, it provides an area of upper-level divergence for the development of surface mid-latitude cyclonic storms.The curving nature of the polar-front jet stream tends to direct surface mid-latitude cyclonic storms northeastward and surface anticyclones southeastward.Skip the sections on “Vorticity, Divergence, and Developing Mid-Latitude Cyclones” and “Polar Lows”
6What happens with the high and low pressure centers over time? The development of a cyclonic wave is determined by the motion of the air aloft:the air flow aloft is parallel to the isobarsthe air flow aloft is neither into L nor away from H.Air flow at the surface is across the isobars.air convergence near low pressure centersair divergence near high pressure centersWhere does it go?Where does itcome from?
7Vertical structure of deep dynamic lows The air cannot disappear or come out of nowhere: the surface flow is related to the vertical flow and consequently to the air flow aloft.The surface winds are coupled to the winds aloftWhat type of upper-level air flow would favor the formation and development of a surface wave cyclone?
8Favorable conditions for a strong midlatitude storm Air convergence at thesurface is aligned with airdivergence aloft.Air divergence at thesurface is aligned witharea of convergence aloftSurface L intensifies (weakens) if the divergence aloft is stronger (weaker) than the surface convergence.Surface H intensifies (weakens) if the convergence aloft is stronger (weaker) than the surface divergence.ConvergenceDivergenceLsurfacealoftH
9But …We know that at upper levels the winds are blowing along the isobars.The air aloft is NOT converging into nor it is diverging away from pressure centers (L or H).What is the right pattern of the upper level winds that will result into a strong storm?
10Is it this one? Low over Low, High over High. No convergence or divergence aloft.The surface Low willfill up and disappearThe surface High will bedepleted and disappearSuch a configurationdoes NOT support the storm.Similarly, Low over High, High over Low won’t work.Surface and upper-level pressure centers cannot be aligned above each other.
11Is it this one?Perfect geostrophic flow – parallel isobars, constant wind speedAgain, no divergence or convergence (i.e. piling up or removal of air).This configuration will NOT support a strong storm at the surfaceConclusion: the isobars must curve, creating regions where they spread apart and/or get closer together.
12500 mbar pressure mapThe air converges as it flows toward the L trough.The air diverges as it flows away from the L trough.ConvergenceDivergence
13Upper Level Waves Long waves (Planetary, Rossby waves) Typically the longwaves have 3-6 wavelengths around the Earth.The result from the uneven heating of the Earth and the rotation of the planet.Long waves move very slowly or are stationary.Often created by mountain rangesShorter wavesImbedded in the long wavesShort waves travel fasterThey can intensify the troughs of the long waves.
14The Vertical Structure of a Middle-latitude Storm The surface L is aligned with the diverging part of the jet stream flow.The surface H is aligned with the converging part of the jet stream flow.H and L centers are not aligned! Upper-level centers are generally shifted to the west