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Class Notes 18.3b (NB p. 51) 1. How did the Supreme Court’s ruling in U.S. v. Cruikshank make it harder to protect the civil rights of African Americans.

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Presentation on theme: "Class Notes 18.3b (NB p. 51) 1. How did the Supreme Court’s ruling in U.S. v. Cruikshank make it harder to protect the civil rights of African Americans."— Presentation transcript:

1 Class Notes 18.3b (NB p. 51) 1. How did the Supreme Court’s ruling in U.S. v. Cruikshank make it harder to protect the civil rights of African Americans in the South? 2. How did the Supreme Court interpret the Fifteenth Amendment in U.S. v. Reese? 3. How did the Supreme Court decision in U.S. v. Reese affect African Americans? 4. Why was it difficult to declare a winner in the presidential election of 1876? 5. What did Southern Democrats give to Republicans in the Compromise of 1877? 6. How did the removal of federal troops under the Compromise of 1877 bring trouble to Southern blacks? (Answer each question with a complete sentence. Skip three lines between each question. )

2 Lesson 18.3b: The End of Reconstruction Today we will trace the decline of Reconstruction and evaluate its legacy.

3 Vocabulary redeemer – a rescuer poll tax – a tax that must be paid before you are allowed to vote literacy test – voter must prove his ability to read and write before being allowed to vote legacy – what is left behind for future generations segregation – separation or division into similar groups

4 Check for Understanding What are we going to do today? If a redeemer is a savior, what does it mean to redeem? Who is hurt most by a poll tax? What can a poor man leave as his legacy?

5 What We Already Know The South had stubbornly resisted Republican efforts to bring political equality to African Americans.

6 What We Already Know The scandals associated with the Grant administration weakened the Republican party.

7 What We Already Know The Panic of 1873 distracted many Northerners from the task of Reconstruction.

8 Supreme Court Reversals To make matters worse for the Republicans, the Supreme Court began to undo some of the changes that had been made in the South.

9 Supreme Court Reversals In an 1876 case, U.S. v. Cruikshank, the Court ruled that only the states, not the federal government could not punish individuals who violated the civil rights of African Americans. Since many Southern state officials would not punish those who attacked African Americans, violence against blacks increased.

10 Supreme Court Reversals In U.S. v. Reese, the Court ruled that the Fifteenth Amendment did not give everyone the right to vote — it merely listed the grounds on which states could not deny the vote. States could prevent African Americans from voting for other reasons, such as poll taxes and literacy tests. These Court decisions weakened Reconstruction and blocked blacks’ efforts to gain full equality. In U.S. v. Reese, the Court ruled that the Fifteenth Amendment did not give everyone the right to vote — it merely listed the grounds on which states could not deny the vote. States could prevent African Americans from voting for other reasons, such as poll taxes and literacy tests. These Court decisions weakened Reconstruction and blocked blacks’ efforts to gain full equality.

11 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

12 71. In what ways did the Supreme Court weaken Reconstruction? A.It ruled that the states could deny the vote blacks for reasons other than race or color. B.It ruled that the states alone could punish those who violated the civil rights of blacks. C.It ruled that the states could not provide literacy tests for African American voters. D.It ruled that the states could deny voting rights to former slaves, but not blacks who had been freed before the Civil War. E.It ruled that the states could not provide freedmen with 40 acres and a mule. Choose all that are true!

13 Reconstruction Ends In the 1876 presidential election, Democrat Samuel J. Tilden ran against Republican Rutherford B. Hayes. The race was very close, and in South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida the votes were so close that both parties claimed victory.

14 Reconstruction Ends A special commission of eight Republicans and seven Democrats made a deal that became known as the Compromise of Hayes became president and, in return, the Repub- licans compromised with the Southern Democrats on several issues.

15 The Compromise of 1877 Land grants and loans for the construc- tion of railroads linking the South to the West Coast Federal funds for construction and improvement projects in the South A Democrat on Hayes’ cabinet. A promise from Democrats to respect African Americans’ civil and political rights. Removal of federal troops from the South

16 Reconstruction Ends The removal of federal troops from the South was a very serious demand. Without federal troops to enforce civil rights laws, it was very unlikely the Southerners would keep their pledge to respect the civil rights of African Americans.

17 Reconstruction Ends After the 1876 presidential election, the Recon- struction governments in the South collapsed. Northerners simply grown tired of spending money and energy to protect African Americans from Southern whites. The Democrats returned to power, believing that they were the redeemers, or rescuers, of the South. After the 1876 presidential election, the Recon- struction governments in the South collapsed. Northerners simply grown tired of spending money and energy to protect African Americans from Southern whites. The Democrats returned to power, believing that they were the redeemers, or rescuers, of the South.

18 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

19 72. What demands did Southern Demo- crats make in the Compromise of 1877? A.Removal of all federal troops from the South B.Federal funds for construction and improvement projects in the South C.Samuel Tilden sworn in as President D.Appointment of a Democrat to the President's cabinet E.More federal land grants and loans for the construction of railroads to the West Coast Choose all that are true!

20 The Legacy of Reconstruction Historians still argue about the success of Reconstruction. The nation did rebuild and reunite, but Reconstruction did not achieve equality for African Americans. Historians still argue about the success of Reconstruction. The nation did rebuild and reunite, but Reconstruction did not achieve equality for African Americans.

21 The Legacy of Reconstruction After Reconstruction, most African Americans still lived in poverty. Legally, they could vote and hold public office, but few took part in politics. After Reconstruction, most African Americans still lived in poverty. Legally, they could vote and hold public office, but few took part in politics.

22 The Legacy of Reconstruction They continued to face widespread violence and prejudice. For almost 100 years, Southerners would use ‘Jim Crow’ laws, similar to the black codes, to enforce racial segregation between whites and blacks. They continued to face widespread violence and prejudice. For almost 100 years, Southerners would use ‘Jim Crow’ laws, similar to the black codes, to enforce racial segregation between whites and blacks.

23 The Legacy of Reconstruction During this period, however, African Americans did make lasting gains. Protection of civil rights became part of the U.S. Constitution. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments would provide a legal basis for civil rights laws of the 20th century.

24 The Legacy of Reconstruction Black schools and churches begun during Reconstruction also endured. Reconstruction changed society, putting African Americans on the path toward full equality. Black schools and churches begun during Reconstruction also endured. Reconstruction changed society, putting African Americans on the path toward full equality.

25 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

26 73. How was the legacy of Reconstruction a mixed one for African Americans? A.Protection of civil rights became part of the U.S. Constitution. B.African Americans began continuous service in Congress and in Southern legislatures. C.Racial prejudice against blacks began to decline steadily. D.African Americans were on the road to full equality. E.Black schools and churches begun during Reconstruction endured. Choose all that are true!

27 74. How did Southerners continue to force African Americans to use segregated public facilities for another hundred years? A.By suing African Americans for violating the Cruikshank decision B.By passing Jim Crow laws that were similar to the old black codes C.By getting various courts to over-rule civil rights laws D.By refusing to enforce the new 'separate but equal' laws


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