3Flanders (2) Regions: considerable political autonomy Region fully responsible for environmental matters (incl. spatial planning), except:Nuclear wasteWaste transit through BelgiumProduct PolicyEuropean and International Policy (joint decisionmaking)
4Flanders (3)One public waste authority on Flemish (regional) level, established in 1981 (OVAM), responsible for working out regional waste management plansMunicipalities are responsible for the collection and treatment of household wasteOwn (inter)municipal services; Tendering; Public-private partnershipsProducer responsibility for certain waste streamsCommercial waste: ‘free market’
5Results (1) Very successful separate collection: Results at the topDoorstep collection of lots of recyclablesBring system (> 340 civic amenity sites)Very high recycling rate2002: first year in which the growth in waste production stoppedSince 2006: no more landfilling of household wasteLarge number of people compost at homePAYT is generalizedBAT waste treatment facilities
7Results (3) Household waste 2010 1991 Production 524 kg /inhabitant/year406 kgSeparate collection (total)374 kg71,4 %75 kg= 18 %Residual waste150 kg*331 kg*all of it incinerated with energy recovery
8Flanders: waste collection before 1991 No selective collectionWaste collected twice/ weekAny bag or container can be usedAll household waste to incineration or landfill
9Introduction selective waste collection 1991: start of selective collection of household wasteResidual household waste‘dry’ or ‘wet’ fractionHazardous wasteNow:Organic wastePaper and cardboardGlassPMD (plastic and metal packaging)MetalsTextiles...
10Introduction selective waste collection Selective collection requires engagement from citizens:New bags or containers for each waste typeSlightly more expensive for citizensSorting rules not always easyMore space needed to keep each waste type separatelyStakeholder engagement is crucialMix of policy instruments
12Continuous improvements (1) 2013: ‘Better Sorting Team’Reporting waste issues through mobile app
13Continuous improvements (2) From curbside waste collection to underground waste collection and sorting points in densily populated areas
14Continuous improvements (3) Waste sorting streets?Underground containers for selective household waste collection:Residual household waste, Paper, GFT, GlassAccessible to a limited pre-determined number of people.(Electronically) monitored: “Pay as you throw”.
15Bring-your-waste (1)Access pass: top up at top-up point or by bank transferAccess: 7/7, between 7 am and 10 pmResidents may access a waste sorting street with their sorting pass on any day. In practice, they bring their waste between 7 am and 10 pm so as not to disturb the local residents.Each wasting street can be used by a certain amount of citizens.
16Bring-your-waste (2)No need to keep waste at home (especially important for small dwellings)Access-card controlledLess odour nuisanceNo torn bags, no messy streetscapeFlexible, because open 7 days a weekBesides the fact that sorting streets are cheaper than the regular collection, the system provides a number of other benefits.Residents who can use a waste sorting street no longer have to keep their waste at home. This is especially useful in small homes.A second advantage is that waste disposal can be controlled. The person who seldom or never opens the residual waste terminal is perhaps throwing away waste into other containers. Or taking part in illegal dumping.A third advantage is reduced nuisance. With the containers underground, there is less odour nuisance. Moreover, flies or other pests cannot get in. There are no rubbish bags in the streetscape. As a result, they cannot be kicked open, spreading their waste content on the street pavement.For users, this is a flexible system. You can dispose of your waste at a time that suits you. You do not have to wait for the particular day the rubbish truck drives by.
17Bring-your-waste (3)Small size dwelling: the regular and quick disposal of waste is definitely a must.Great diversity of languages and cultures: no more issues reading the waste collection calendar; no rescheduled collection days (due to holidays).Keeping truck traffic off the residential streetsLess illegal dumpingIn the centre of Antwerp, there are many small homes. There, in particular, it is important that waste be collected regularly and quickly. In addition, the people living in the centre come from diverse backgrounds. Non-Dutch speakers or people who don't know the holidays no longer have to deal with a waste collection calendar. The rescheduled collection days due to holidays sometimes create problems as well. These are resolved by the use of the flexible system of waste sorting streets.With the regular collection system a great deal of trucks have to drive through the streets. In a densely populated city centre this should therefore be reduced. Since the emptied volume of a single container in a waste sorting street is equivalent to 150 ordinary rubbish bags, truck traffic is set to decrease dramatically in neighbourhoods fitted with waste sorting streets.Finally, efforts are also made to reduce illegal dumping by installing additional waste sorting streets.
18The way forward for Flanders? Keep up the good workEnvironmental problems do not stop at country bordersWhat price is the citizen willing to pay?€10 extra investments in our country = marginal resultWhat if we invest that same €10 in developing countries?Only one way forward: dialogue, solidarity, cooperation