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UNIT 3. Advertising Appeals Bandwagon: This advertising appeal aims to persuade people to do a certain thing because many are doing it. It is a human.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 3. Advertising Appeals Bandwagon: This advertising appeal aims to persuade people to do a certain thing because many are doing it. It is a human."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT 3

2 Advertising Appeals Bandwagon: This advertising appeal aims to persuade people to do a certain thing because many are doing it. It is a human tendency to do as the masses do. Bandwagon technique of advertising captures this to induce people to use a certain product or service. 8 out of every 10 women prefer using the xyz shampoo! or More than 80% of the dentists of our country are using the xyz toothpaste. Which toothpaste do you use? or The world agrees with abc... Do you?

3 Card Stacking: This advertising appeal involves doing a comparative study of two competing products. The facts in favor of the product are selected. They are put forth in comparison with those of a competing product to make the product being advertised appear better. In this strategy, only the positive points of a product are highlighted while the negative ones are excluded.

4 Black and White Fallacy: In this advertising appeal, only two choices are presented before the audience, thus compelling them to buy the product being advertised. It's like saying, "you are either with us or with them", or "you are with us or against us". In this method of advertising, two opposite choices are given to the audience. They are compelled to choose one. Saying something like "the elite class uses xyz product" can be a clever way of making people use xyz. They are made to believe that if they do not use the product, they are not elite.

5 Flag-waving: This advertising technique makes use of the patriotic flavor to publicize a product. In case of flag-waving, advertisers try to justify certain actions on grounds of patriotism. Masses are persuaded to choose a particular product because doing so will be an expression of patriotism. In this method, advertisers associate buying or using their product with love for the country. They make people believe that in using a certain product, they are showing love for their country.

6 Half Truth: In this advertising appeal, advertisers use deceptive statements to publicize their product. They often use double-meaning words or statements to convey their message. What's partially true, or true in certain cases, is presented. Thus, the message conveyed through the advertisement is neither completely true nor entirely false.

7 Scientific Evidence: This technique attempts to attract masses to use the advertised product, by providing them with survey results. The advertisers often use statistical evidences and market surveys to publicize their product. Research or statistical data supporting the advertisement, makes it appear more authentic

8 Plain Folks: This advertising techniques aims at attracting the masses by using common people to advertise a product. Bombastic words may not always appeal to common folks. They can rather be attracted by communicating with them in their language. The use of homey words, as they are called, and purposeful errors while speaking to give a natural feel to the speech, are characteristic to this advertising appeal.

9 UNIT 4

10 Media Characteristics Each medium is endowed with unique capabilities and distinctive characteristics in terms of technical, physical, and aspirational values. Each medium has varying reach, accessibility, and credibility. A medium does not ensure equal reach among its routine target audience. As the interest levels, availability of time, preoccupation of the target audience at various time and environmental factors affect media usage. Types of Media

11 Relative strengths and weaknesses of various media: Print Media – Strengths Message received at home in a relaxed atmosphere. Newspapers have a better shelf life and can be read at leisure and referred to when required. The urge to seek news puts the newspaper in a better position to be trusted. Types of Media

12 Reading a newspaper becomes a matter of habit, hence it ensures regular attention. Can cope with detailed coverage. Written words has more credibility. Messages carry urgency. High on national coverage. Weaknesses: Suffers from the literacy barrier.

13 Newspapers become stale in a day. Lacks drama and emotion. Demonstration of product features not effective. Overtaken by television in speed. Lacks empathetic readership. Bad news is often considered ‘good’ news.

14 Average time devoted to newspaper reading is very low, hence advertisements do not stand much chance of being noticed. Local/regional newspapers – Strengths Strong reader loyalty. Local coverage. Regional flexibility.

15 © Copyright 2010 ASHOK INLEAD SCHOOL OF HOSPITALITY Weaknesses: Small circulation. Potential to be biased. Generally poor readership data. Magazine – Strengths Selective readership High shelf value Types of Media

16 Create a bond and empathy with the readers. High on style, design, and color. Weaknesses High production cost Long copy and cancellation dates Expensive advertising medium High printing costs Types of Media

17 Television – Strengths Reaches a wide audience Sight, sound, and color give dramatic possibilities. Larger than life image Achieves viewers’ empathy High on credibility Wide choice of channels without incurring extra cost. A family medium Types of Media

18 Weaknesses Expensive with regard to time and production. Bad quality, transmission problems, and poor anchors may put the viewers off. Too much viewing bad for the eyes. Tends to make people ‘home birds’ and asocial. Too much viewing can have an adverse effect on impressionable minds. Too much sex and violence can have adverse impact on society. Types of Media

19 Radio – strengths Wide coverage High OTS among listeners Advertising inexpensive compared to TV and press. Long broadcasting hours High impact and immediacy If used as transistor, a mobile medium Types of Media

20 Weaknesses Suffers from apathetic listeners Audience use it as ‘audio wallpaper’ TV preferred over radio, if there is choice Not a very interactive medium Not very innovative Types of Media

21 Cinema – strengths Impact of big screen with sound, movement, and colour Attracts young crowds Theatre viewing a socializing event Selective local advertising coverage possible which can gain immediate impact. Types of Media

22 Weaknesses: TV has eroded the cinema audience base Slow build up of audience Attendance is low and infrequent Commercials shown either in the beginning or at the interval, when high attendance is not ensured. Types of Media

23 © Copyright 2010 ASHOK INLEAD SCHOOL OF HOSPITALITY Outdoor Media – strengths High coverage Large-sized billboards give larger than life image. Sites can be booked very flexibly Can create drama with color and size Twenty-four hour projection Good reminder medium A community medium Types of Media

24 © Copyright 2010 ASHOK INLEAD SCHOOL OF HOSPITALITY Weaknesses High printing cost of posters, unless used on a large scale. Poor audience research Environmentalists have launched a crusade against them as they spoil the landscape. High velocity winds often damage the boards and lead to accidents. Short-circuiting possible in monsoon Only small message possible They distract drivers. Types of Media

25 Mobile phones and SMS – strengths A communication revolution Reach not dependent on location Reach the right target audience Permission marketing possible Emotional connotation An all pervasive medium Types of Media

26 Weaknesses Nuisance value Intrusion in privacy A possible health hazard Literacy barrier Types of Media

27 © Copyright 2010 ASHOK INLEAD SCHOOL OF HOSPITALITY Advantages of Newspaper Advertising Creative flexibility: Newspapers offer great variety and options in terms of size ranging from classified ads to two page spreads. Active medium: A sense of immediacy is attached with newspapers. More information: Newspapers provide much more detailed and in depth information than any other media. Media Planning and Management

28 Advantages of Magazine Advertising Most magazines reach specific segments of readers like sports, film, business etc. Long shelf life Credibility Specialized network Color and gloss Media Planning and Management

29 Disadvantages of Magazine Advertising High cost Long closing dates: Magazines production takes a lot of time. Advertising clutter: Most magazines publish large number of ads they compete for attention. So, there is a danger of some ads not being read. Media Planning and Management

30 . Advantages of Radio Advertisement Personal medium: It is a medium of imagination or a theatre of mind. Selective nature: It reaches narrow audience demographically. Low cost It uses much humor, personalities and emotions Media Planning and Management

31 Disadvantages of Radio Advertisement Media planners are often confused as to which stations and programs to choose. Despite the sound effects, jingles, strong copy, radio ads can not compete with other visual media where products can be shown in full glory. Inattentiveness on the part of listeners. Noting down phone no. and addresses not easy. Media Planning and Management

32 Advantages of TV Advertisement Advertisers spend huge amounts of money on TV advertising because of the following advantages: Impact: TV ads have strong impact on the viewers because of combination of sight, sound, motion, color, drama etc. Influence: The high level of involvement and high impact make television very influential as a medium of advertising. Media Planning and Management

33 Cost efficiency: Mass media coverage makes television cost effective. High coverage cost effectiveness and maximum creative possibilities have established television as the most important and effective medium. Media Planning and Management

34 Disadvantages of TV Advertisements Cost: Production costs and TV time rates are very high. A TV ad featuring big time celebrities sometimes costs crores of rupees. Clutter: Because of clutter it becomes difficult for viewers to remember ads and their selling messages. Nonselective audiences: Communication is directed at an unresponsive and uninterested audience. Media Planning and Management

35 Advantages of Outdoor Media Mobile population is exposed to outdoor ads. Outdoor ads reinforce the other media which deliver advertising messages to people at home. Frequency of exposure Have superior quality visuals Media Planning and Management

36 Outdoor ads offer long term presence Dominant visual impact of outdoor ads helps in better reception and retention of messages. Can be given ‘campaign’ look by having series of ads. Disadvantages : Can rarely accommodate complete sales messages. Outdoor ads usually contain one visual and copy of seven to ten words. Little audience selectivity Space problem to put the ads Media Planning and Management

37 Need of a media strategy Media strategy is a roadmap that helps in establishing the parameters and ground rules on which we judge our plans Media strategy is crucial in all the stages of PLC  Introduction stage  Growth stage  Maturity stage  Decline stage

38 The building block of Media strategy Who? TG definition Where? Market prioritization What? Media weight When? Scheduling Why? Media mix

39 Target audience Market segmentation Geographic segmentation Demographic segmentation Psychographic segmentation Behavioral segmentation Targeting the market Positioning an image

40 Target Audience Objectives The audience consists of people in a specific age, income, educational and occupation The metros, mini metros, towns, and villages help a media planner to segment the target audience as the life style of people in these segments is almost similar, irrespective of being geographically apart. Media Planning and Management

41 Establishing Media Objectives Media objectives are formulated to help accomplish the advertising communications task and marketing objectives. They are translated into specific goals for the media program and are limited to those that can be achieved through media strategies. Media objectives can be stated as: Media Planning and Management

42 Use print media to provide coverage of 80% of the target market over a six month period, starting from July. Reach 60% of the target audience at least three times (frequency) over the same six month period. Concentrate on heaviest advertising between October – December, with lighter emphasis in earlier months. Media Planning and Management

43 The media planner’s objective is to reach as many members of the target audience as possible and at the same time minimize the extent of any waste coverage. Media Mix : Combination of advertising channels employed in meeting the promotional objectives of a marketing plan or campaign. It is a combination of media to be used in an advertising campaign. Media Planning and Management

44 Media Plan A media plan is the essential ingredient of a campaign proposal when it is presented to a client. For example, if the marketing objective for brand A is to expand in six cities in the period of one year, the media objective will be use those media which are located in those cities, keeping in view the potential buyers who access those media. The media plan generally incorporates scheduling as well as the vehicles recommended. Media Planning and Management

45 Media Planning It is very important part of advertising as maximum amount of money is spent on media. Media planning requires thorough knowledge of the characteristics of various media. It also involves the total analysis of the target audience and the media options and matching the both. There are no standard formats for preparing the media plan. The following elements need to be considered: Media Planning and Management

46 Media planning involves the following decisions: Where to advertise or to send message? Which media to be used? Which time of the year to advertise (timing & scheduling)? How often to run the ads (frequency)? What opportunity are there for integrating other communication? Media Planning and Management

47 Media Planning is a behind the scene part of advertising. It plays an integral role in merging the science of marketing with the art of advertising. A media planner has to find out about the availability of various media, the media rates, their reaches and also analyzing the effectiveness of the various media. Then the media planner has to choose such media which would reach the target audience effectively – both impact and cost wise. Media Planning and Management

48 Media Strategy A media strategy is always an integral part of any media plan. It details the logic and consistency of the overall media schedule recommended. The media planner needs to have good understanding of various elements of the marketing mix to determine how it might affect the selection of media. In some cases, sales promotion may be an important marketing strategy, but the dissemination of information about a promotional scheme is often through mass media. Media Planning and Management

49 For example, LG Electronics, in its advertisements in various mainstream newspapers in Delhi, has come up with an exchange offer for an old television set (any brand) with the new LG television, indicating the price differential. When pricing tactics are a part of the marketing strategy, a media effort is required to keep the potential consumer informed. Promotion also includes newspaper inserts, coupons, events etc. A media planner has to keep in view public relations activities while strategizing the plan. He may not be asked to provide PR strategy for the brand, but he must have full knowledge of the PR & publicity strategy surrounding a brand. Media Planning and Management

50 Media Scheduling When to run the campaign and for how long to run it? This is called media scheduling or finalizing the day, time and other specifications about the placement of the ads. Media Schedule is the calendar of advertising plan. Scheduling is concerned with timing the insertion of advertisements in the selected media. One important aspect of scheduling is the frequency. Frequency is directly related to the impact of the ad message. More is the frequency more is the product recognition, more the recall of messages and more the success of ad in term of sales. Media Planning and Management

51 There are three approaches to scheduling: 1.Continuity: It refers to the length of time an advertising schedule continues such as every day, every week, or every month. If the planners believed that product recall responded easily to the exposure of ad messages and also decayed easily if there was no advertising, then recall ad messages are needed continuously. This strategy is suitable for those product categories that are regularly consumed on an ongoing basis, such as washing powders, soaps, toothpaste and soft drink etc. The disadvantages include higher costs and possibility of overexposure etc. Media Planning and Management

52 2. Flighting or Seasonal: It refers to a less regular schedule of advertising messages and is quite popular. There are intermittent periods of advertising and no advertising. In case of certain consumer products, both durable and non- durable, flighting pattern is often used. Examples are desert coolers, refrigerators, wooden jackets and sweaters and other products. Flighting offers the advantages of cost efficiency as advertising covers only purchase cycles. It has the disadvantages of possible wear out, decreased awareness, interest and retention of ad messages during non-scheduled periods. Media Planning and Management

53 3. Pulsing: Pulsing is the combination of continuity and flighting. The continuity is maintained as a base throughout, but during certain periods the level of advertising is stepped up. Pulsing offers the combined advantages of both continuity and flighting. This method is not suitable for seasonal products or for small budget companies. Decision about scheduling strategy are based on the advertising objectives, buying cycles, competitive spending, advertising decay, available budget etc. Media Planning and Management

54 Steps In buying Process 1. The buying brief Once the plan has been designed, it is the time for the planner for preparing the brief While the buying brief is a formalized document which ensures knowledge of all critical elements of media strategy, it actually helps in summarizing the entire plan

55 Steps In buying Process Elements of a buying brief  The advertising strategy  Target audience  Market coverage  Media mix  Media budget  Campaign period

56 Steps In buying Process 2) Environmental analysis Before we actually start the process of buying the media, it is mandatory to understand the overall environment in which the brand is operating This analysis is qualitative as well as quantitative in nature

57 Steps In buying Process Factors to be studied  Changes in TG media consumption habits  Impact of changing lifestyle on media usage patterns  The role of non traditional media  Growth in media expenditures  Competitors strategy  Competitors budget

58 Steps In buying Process 3) The science of buying While media planning is considered as the thinking process which deals with the numbers and figures, buying is assumed to be the softer side of the media However, this view is not absolutely correct. With the dynamics of the media, it is becoming very complicated for the media buyers to buy media

59 Steps In buying Process The science of buying includes  Tracking the media performance  Benchmarking the past deals  Channel consideration set  Competitors buying strategy

60 Steps In buying Process 4) The art of buying a) Negotiating a win-win deal – It is very essential to negotiate a good deal that can assist the organization in being cost effective b) The power of relationships – The importance of building good relationships with the media partners is very essential. Not only it can rescue in crisis situation but it can also go beyond in delivering value beyond what was promised c) Negotiating strategies – There are several strategies that are employed by the buyer during the buying process (continued in next slide) d) Matching the buying strategy to the vehicle – The media choices facing the bbuyer are numerous so the buyer needs to match the vehicle with the overall strategy

61 Steps In buying Process Negotiating strategies  Using Clout  ‘The other guy blinked’ approach  Carrot and stick approach  Downplay budget approach  Campaign based approach  ‘Bend it like a willow’ approach  ‘Think local’ approach

62 Steps In buying Process 5) Benchmarking Rates  Comparison to last year rates  Comparison within the genre  Comparison with other media’s The planners also need to sit and prepare a ‘Babushka plan’


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