2Advertising AppealsBandwagon: This advertising appeal aims to persuade people to do a certain thing because many are doing it. It is a human tendency to do as the masses do.Bandwagon technique of advertising captures this to induce people to use a certain product or service. 8 out of every 10 women prefer using the xyz shampoo! or More than 80% of the dentists of our country are using the xyz toothpaste. Which toothpaste do you use? or The world agrees with abc... Do you?
3Card Stacking: This advertising appeal involves doing a comparative study of two competing products. The facts in favor of the product are selected. They are put forth in comparison with those of a competing product to make the product being advertised appear better. In this strategy, only the positive points of a product are highlighted while the negative ones are excluded.
4Black and White Fallacy: In this advertising appeal, only two choices are presented before the audience, thus compelling them to buy the product being advertised. It's like saying, "you are either with us or with them", or "you are with us or against us".In this method of advertising, two opposite choices are given to the audience. They are compelled to choose one. Saying something like "the elite class uses xyz product" can be a clever way of making people use xyz. They are made to believe that if they do not use the product, they are not elite.
5Flag-waving: This advertising technique makes use of the patriotic flavor to publicize a product. In case of flag-waving, advertisers try to justify certain actions on grounds of patriotism. Masses are persuaded to choose a particular product because doing so will be an expression of patriotism. In this method, advertisers associate buying or using their product with love for the country. They make people believe that in using a certain product, they are showing love for their country.
6Half Truth: In this advertising appeal, advertisers use deceptive statements to publicize their product. They often use double-meaning words or statements to convey their message. What's partially true, or true in certain cases, is presented. Thus, the message conveyed through the advertisement is neither completely true nor entirely false.
7Scientific Evidence: This technique attempts to attract masses to use the advertised product, by providing them with survey results. The advertisers often use statistical evidences and market surveys to publicize their product. Research or statistical data supporting the advertisement, makes it appear more authentic
8Plain Folks: This advertising techniques aims at attracting the masses by using common people to advertise a product. Bombastic words may not always appeal to common folks. They can rather be attracted by communicating with them in their language. The use of homey words, as they are called, and purposeful errors while speaking to give a natural feel to the speech, are characteristic to this advertising appeal.
10Media Characteristics Types of MediaMedia CharacteristicsEach medium is endowed with unique capabilities and distinctive characteristics in terms of technical, physical, and aspirational values.Each medium has varying reach, accessibility, and credibility.A medium does not ensure equal reach among its routine target audience. As the interest levels, availability of time, preoccupation of the target audience at various time and environmental factors affect media usage.
11Print Media – Strengths Types of MediaRelative strengths and weaknesses of various media:Print Media – StrengthsMessage received at home in a relaxed atmosphere.Newspapers have a better shelf life and can be read at leisure and referred to when required.The urge to seek news puts the newspaper in a better position to be trusted.
12Can cope with detailed coverage. Written words has more credibility. Types of MediaReading a newspaper becomes a matter of habit, hence it ensures regular attention.Can cope with detailed coverage.Written words has more credibility.Messages carry urgency.High on national coverage.Weaknesses:Suffers from the literacy barrier.
13Newspapers become stale in a day. Lacks drama and emotion. Types of MediaNewspapers become stale in a day.Lacks drama and emotion.Demonstration of product features not effective.Overtaken by television in speed.Lacks empathetic readership.Bad news is often considered ‘good’ news.
14Local/regional newspapers – Strengths Types of MediaAverage time devoted to newspaper reading is very low, hence advertisements do not stand much chance of being noticed.Local/regional newspapers – StrengthsStrong reader loyalty.Local coverage.Regional flexibility.
16Create a bond and empathy with the readers. Types of MediaCreate a bond and empathy with the readers.High on style, design, and color.WeaknessesHigh production costLong copy and cancellation datesExpensive advertising mediumHigh printing costs
17Television – Strengths Reaches a wide audience Types of MediaTelevision – StrengthsReaches a wide audienceSight, sound, and color give dramatic possibilities.Larger than life imageAchieves viewers’ empathyHigh on credibilityWide choice of channels without incurring extra cost.A family medium
18Expensive with regard to time and production. Types of MediaWeaknessesExpensive with regard to time and production.Bad quality, transmission problems, and poor anchors may put the viewers off.Too much viewing bad for the eyes.Tends to make people ‘home birds’ and asocial.Too much viewing can have an adverse effect on impressionable minds.Too much sex and violence can have adverse impact on society.
19High OTS among listeners Types of MediaRadio – strengthsWide coverageHigh OTS among listenersAdvertising inexpensive compared to TV and press.Long broadcasting hoursHigh impact and immediacyIf used as transistor, a mobile medium
20Suffers from apathetic listeners Audience use it as ‘audio wallpaper’ Types of MediaWeaknessesSuffers from apathetic listenersAudience use it as ‘audio wallpaper’TV preferred over radio, if there is choiceNot a very interactive mediumNot very innovative
21Impact of big screen with sound, movement, and colour Types of MediaCinema – strengthsImpact of big screen with sound, movement, and colourAttracts young crowdsTheatre viewing a socializing eventSelective local advertising coverage possible which can gain immediate impact.
22TV has eroded the cinema audience base Slow build up of audience Types of MediaWeaknesses:TV has eroded the cinema audience baseSlow build up of audienceAttendance is low and infrequentCommercials shown either in the beginning or at the interval, when high attendance is not ensured.
25Mobile phones and SMS – strengths A communication revolution Types of MediaMobile phones and SMS – strengthsA communication revolutionReach not dependent on locationReach the right target audiencePermission marketing possibleEmotional connotationAn all pervasive medium
26A possible health hazard Literacy barrier Types of MediaWeaknessesNuisance valueIntrusion in privacyA possible health hazardLiteracy barrier
28Advantages of Magazine Advertising Media Planning and ManagementAdvantages of Magazine AdvertisingMost magazines reach specific segments of readers like sports, film, business etc.Long shelf lifeCredibilitySpecialized networkColor and gloss
29Disadvantages of Magazine Advertising Media Planning and ManagementDisadvantages of Magazine AdvertisingHigh costLong closing dates: Magazines production takes a lot of time.Advertising clutter: Most magazines publish large number of ads they compete for attention. So, there is a danger of some ads not being read.
30. Advantages of Radio Advertisement Media Planning and Management. Advantages of Radio AdvertisementPersonal medium: It is a medium of imagination or a theatre of mind.Selective nature: It reaches narrow audience demographically.Low costIt uses much humor, personalities and emotions
31Disadvantages of Radio Advertisement Media Planning and ManagementDisadvantages of Radio AdvertisementMedia planners are often confused as to which stations and programs to choose.Despite the sound effects, jingles, strong copy, radio ads can not compete with other visual media where products can be shown in full glory.Inattentiveness on the part of listeners.Noting down phone no. and addresses not easy.
32Advantages of TV Advertisement Media Planning and ManagementAdvantages of TV AdvertisementAdvertisers spend huge amounts of money on TV advertising because of the following advantages:Impact: TV ads have strong impact on the viewers because of combination of sight, sound, motion, color, drama etc.Influence: The high level of involvement and high impact make television very influential as a medium of advertising.
33Cost efficiency: Mass media coverage makes television cost effective. Media Planning and ManagementCost efficiency: Mass media coverage makes television cost effective.High coverage cost effectiveness and maximum creative possibilities have established television as the most important and effective medium.
34Disadvantages of TV Advertisements Media Planning and ManagementDisadvantages of TV AdvertisementsCost: Production costs and TV time rates are very high. A TV ad featuring big time celebrities sometimes costs crores of rupees.Clutter: Because of clutter it becomes difficult for viewers to remember ads and their selling messages.Nonselective audiences: Communication is directed at an unresponsive and uninterested audience.
35Advantages of Outdoor Media Media Planning and ManagementAdvantages of Outdoor MediaMobile population is exposed to outdoor ads.Outdoor ads reinforce the other media which deliver advertising messages to people at home.Frequency of exposureHave superior quality visuals
36Disadvantages: Outdoor ads offer long term presence Media Planning and ManagementOutdoor ads offer long term presenceDominant visual impact of outdoor ads helps in better reception and retention of messages.Can be given ‘campaign’ look by having series of ads.Disadvantages:Can rarely accommodate complete sales messages. Outdoor ads usually contain one visual and copy of seven to ten words.Little audience selectivitySpace problem to put the ads
37Need of a media strategy Media strategy is a roadmap that helps in establishing the parameters and ground rules on which we judge our plansMedia strategy is crucial in all the stages of PLCIntroduction stageGrowth stageMaturity stageDecline stage
38The building block of Media strategy Who? TG definitionWhere? Market prioritizationWhat? Media weightWhen? SchedulingWhy? Media mix
39Target audience Market segmentation Geographic segmentation Demographic segmentationPsychographic segmentationBehavioral segmentationTargeting the marketPositioning an image
40Target Audience Objectives Media Planning and ManagementTarget Audience ObjectivesThe audience consists of people in a specific age, income, educational and occupationThe metros, mini metros, towns, and villages help a media planner to segment the target audience as the life style of people in these segments is almost similar, irrespective of being geographically apart.
41Establishing Media Objectives Media Planning and ManagementEstablishing Media ObjectivesMedia objectives are formulated to help accomplish the advertising communications task and marketing objectives.They are translated into specific goals for the media program and are limited to those that can be achieved through media strategies.Media objectives can be stated as:
42Media Planning and Management Use print media to provide coverage of 80% of the target market over a six month period, starting from July.Reach 60% of the target audience at least three times (frequency) over the same six month period.Concentrate on heaviest advertising between October – December, with lighter emphasis in earlier months.
43Media Planning and Management The media planner’s objective is to reach as many members of the target audience as possible and at the same time minimize the extent of any waste coverage.Media Mix: Combination of advertising channels employed in meeting the promotional objectives of a marketing plan or campaign.It is a combination of media to be used in an advertising campaign.
44Media Planning and Management A media plan is the essential ingredient of a campaign proposal when it is presented to a client.For example, if the marketing objective for brand A is to expand in six cities in the period of one year, the media objective will be use those media which are located in those cities, keeping in view the potential buyers who access those media.The media plan generally incorporates scheduling as well as the vehicles recommended.
45Media Planning and Management It is very important part of advertising as maximum amount of money is spent on media.Media planning requires thorough knowledge of the characteristics of various media.It also involves the total analysis of the target audience and the media options and matching the both.There are no standard formats for preparing the media plan.The following elements need to be considered:
46Media planning involves the following decisions: Media Planning and ManagementMedia planning involves the following decisions:Where to advertise or to send message?Which media to be used?Which time of the year to advertise (timing & scheduling)?How often to run the ads (frequency)?What opportunity are there for integrating other communication?
47Media Planning and Management Media Planning is a behind the scene part of advertising. It plays an integral role in merging the science of marketing with the art of advertising.A media planner has to find out about the availability of various media, the media rates, their reaches and also analyzing the effectiveness of the various media. Then the media planner has to choose such media which would reach the target audience effectively – both impact and cost wise.
48A media strategy is always an integral part of any media plan. Media Planning and ManagementMedia StrategyA media strategy is always an integral part of any media plan.It details the logic and consistency of the overall media schedule recommended.The media planner needs to have good understanding of various elements of the marketing mix to determine how it might affect the selection of media.In some cases, sales promotion may be an important marketing strategy, but the dissemination of information about a promotional scheme is often through mass media.
49Media Planning and Management For example, LG Electronics, in its advertisements in various mainstream newspapers in Delhi, has come up with an exchange offer for an old television set (any brand) with the new LG television, indicating the price differential. When pricing tactics are a part of the marketing strategy, a media effort is required to keep the potential consumer informed. Promotion also includes newspaper inserts, coupons, events etc.A media planner has to keep in view public relations activities while strategizing the plan.He may not be asked to provide PR strategy for the brand, but he must have full knowledge of the PR & publicity strategy surrounding a brand.
50Media Schedule is the calendar of advertising plan. Media Planning and ManagementMedia SchedulingWhen to run the campaign and for how long to run it? This is called media scheduling or finalizing the day, time and other specifications about the placement of the ads.Media Schedule is the calendar of advertising plan.Scheduling is concerned with timing the insertion of advertisements in the selected media.One important aspect of scheduling is the frequency.Frequency is directly related to the impact of the ad message. More is the frequency more is the product recognition, more the recall of messages and more the success of ad in term of sales.
51There are three approaches to scheduling: Media Planning and ManagementThere are three approaches to scheduling:Continuity: It refers to the length of time an advertising schedule continues such as every day, every week, or every month. If the planners believed that product recall responded easily to the exposure of ad messages and also decayed easily if there was no advertising, then recall ad messages are needed continuously. This strategy is suitable for those product categories that are regularly consumed on an ongoing basis, such as washing powders, soaps, toothpaste and soft drink etc. The disadvantages include higher costs and possibility of overexposure etc.
52Media Planning and Management 2. Flighting or Seasonal: It refers to a less regular schedule of advertising messages and is quite popular. There are intermittent periods of advertising and no advertising. In case of certain consumer products, both durable and non- durable, flighting pattern is often used. Examples are desert coolers, refrigerators, wooden jackets and sweaters and other products.Flighting offers the advantages of cost efficiency as advertising covers only purchase cycles. It has the disadvantages of possible wear out, decreased awareness, interest and retention of ad messages during non-scheduled periods.
53Media Planning and Management 3. Pulsing: Pulsing is the combination of continuity and flighting. The continuity is maintained as a base throughout, but during certain periods the level of advertising is stepped up.Pulsing offers the combined advantages of both continuity and flighting. This method is not suitable for seasonal products or for small budget companies.Decision about scheduling strategy are based on the advertising objectives, buying cycles, competitive spending, advertising decay, available budget etc.
54Steps In buying Process 1. The buying briefOnce the plan has been designed, it is the time for the planner for preparing the briefWhile the buying brief is a formalized document which ensures knowledge of all critical elements of media strategy, it actually helps in summarizing the entire plan
55Steps In buying Process Elements of a buying briefThe advertising strategyTarget audienceMarket coverageMedia mixMedia budgetCampaign period
56Steps In buying Process 2) Environmental analysisBefore we actually start the process of buying the media, it is mandatory to understand the overall environment in which the brand is operatingThis analysis is qualitative as well as quantitative in nature
57Steps In buying Process Factors to be studiedChanges in TG media consumption habitsImpact of changing lifestyle on media usage patternsThe role of non traditional mediaGrowth in media expendituresCompetitors strategyCompetitors budget
58Steps In buying Process 3) The science of buyingWhile media planning is considered as the thinking process which deals with the numbers and figures, buying is assumed to be the softer side of the mediaHowever, this view is not absolutely correct. With the dynamics of the media, it is becoming very complicated for the media buyers to buy media
59Steps In buying Process The science of buying includesTracking the media performanceBenchmarking the past dealsChannel consideration setCompetitors buying strategy
60Steps In buying Process 4) The art of buyingNegotiating a win-win deal – It is very essential to negotiate a good deal that can assist the organization in being cost effectiveThe power of relationships – The importance of building good relationships with the media partners is very essential. Not only it can rescue in crisis situation but it can also go beyond in delivering value beyond what was promisedNegotiating strategies – There are several strategies that are employed by the buyer during the buying process (continued in next slide)Matching the buying strategy to the vehicle – The media choices facing the bbuyer are numerous so the buyer needs to match the vehicle with the overall strategy
61Steps In buying Process Negotiating strategiesUsing Clout‘The other guy blinked’ approachCarrot and stick approachDownplay budget approachCampaign based approach‘Bend it like a willow’ approach‘Think local’ approach
62Steps In buying Process 5) Benchmarking RatesComparison to last year ratesComparison within the genreComparison with other media’sThe planners also need to sit and prepare a ‘Babushka plan’