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Presentation on theme: "PRESENTATION ON POLLUTION"— Presentation transcript:


2 POLLUTION Man’s First Environmental Problem

3 POLLUTION Is the introduction by man into the environment of
contaminants that contains harmful substances Introduction by man, waste matter or surplus energy into the environment, which directly or indirectly causes damage to man and his environment

4 POLLUTANT A substance or effect which
adversely alters the environment by changing the growth rate of species, interferes with the food chain, is toxic, or interferes with health, comfort amenities or property values of people.

5 EFFECTS ON BIOSPHERE Damage to human health by specific
chemical substances present in the air, food, water and radioactive material Damage to natural environment affecting vegetation, animals, crops, soil and water Damage to visual quality by smoke, fumes, dust, noise and waste. Damage by carcinogens, radioactive materials and excessive noise.

6 TYPES OF POLLUTION Water Pollution Air Pollution Land Pollution
Noise Pollution Waste pollution Thermal Pollution Visual Pollution

7 WATER POLLUTION Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities.

8 CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION Water ( about 99%) Solids Carbohydrates
Proteins (These are referred to as Fat “organic material”.) Nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorus) Microorganisms. (On average there are about 10 million per ml of wastewater. Many are pathogens)

9 sources of WATER POLLUTION Throwing trashes in water.
Throwing low batteries in water , lakes , rivers and etc. The chemicals from factories that might flow to rivers

10 AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is the modification of the natural
characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical particulate matter are biological agent. The atmosphere is a complex ,dynamic natural gaseous system is that is essential to support life on the planet earth . Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the earth ecosystem.

11 EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION Humans Animals Vegetation Materials
Global warming Ozone depletion Acid Rain Various respiratory illnesses.

12 LAND POLLUTION Urbanization and Concentration of Population
Municipal Solid Waste Industrial Waste and Hazardous Waste Uncontrolled .Land Treatment. Burning open dumps and forest fires Deforestation Mining and Erosion

13 NOISE POLLUTION Noise pollution or environmental noise is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the activity or happiness of human or animal life. A common form of noise pollution is from transportation, principally motor vehicles. The word "noise" comes from the Latin word nausea meaning "seasickness", or from a derivative (perhaps Latin noxia) of Latin noceō = "I do harm", referring originally to nuisance noise.

No one on earth can escape the sounds of noise- an unwanted, disturbing sound that causes a nuisance in the eye of the beholder. There are numerous effects on the human environment due to the increase in noise pollution. Major sources of noise can be airplanes at takeoff and landing, and a truck just off the assembly line, yet we seem accept and enjoy countless other sounds, from hard rock music to loud Harley Davidson motor cycles.

15 WASTE POLLUTION Waste, rubbish, trash, garbage, or junk is unwanted or undesired material. "Waste" is the general term; though the other terms are used loosely as synonyms, they have more specific meanings: rubbish or trash are mixed household waste and including paper and packaging; food waste or garbage (North America) is kitchen and table waste; and junk or scrap is metallic or industrial material. There are other categories of waste as well: sewage, ash, manure, and plant materials from garden operations, including grass cuttings, fallen leaves, and pruned branches.

16 THERMAL POLLUTION Thermal pollution is the degradation of
water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plant and industrial manufacturers. When water used as a coolant is returned to the natural environment at a higher temperature, the change in temperature (a) decreases oxygen supply, and (b) affects ecosystem composition.

17 VISUAL POLLUTION Visual pollution is the term given to unattractive
and man-made visual elements of a vista, a landscape, or any other thing that a person does not feel comfortable to look at. Visual pollution is an aesthetic issue, referring to the impacts of pollution that impair one's ability to enjoy a vista or view. The term is used broadly to cover visibility, limits on the ability to view distant objects, as well as the more subjective issue of visual clutter.

18 POLLUTION MANAGMENT Pollution can be controlled by
proper choice of preventive and remedial measures

19 WASTEWATER TREATMENT Preventive Curative Physical Biological
Volume reduction Strength reduction Chemical

20 WASTEWATER PROCESSING Wastewater Air emissions Water Primary Treatment
Secondary Treatment Tertiary Treatment Primary sludge Secondary Sludge Tertiary Sludge

21 PHYSICAL METHOD Objective: Solvent extraction Remove solid or
liquid pollutants based on density difference or other physical property (eg. SS or floating solids) Solvent extraction Evaporation Distillation Filtration Reverse Osmosis Electro dialysis Adsorption

22 BIOLOGICAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT Aerobic treatment Anaerobic treatment
The organic load is defined by the Biological Oxygen demand (BOD). In aerobic systems the water is aerated with compressed air (in some cases oxygen). Anaerobic systems run under oxygen free conditions -biogas is a useful product.

23 AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Use tall stacks
80% of the air pollution load is contributed by the transport sector Use tall stacks Source reduction by process and raw material changes (eg. Improved furnace design and low S fuel) Recover valuable material (eg. Hg) Bag filters, scrubbers, ESP, cyclone separators Absorption, adsorption, combustion and catalytic reaction

24 LAND POLLUTION CONTROL Integrated Solid Waste Management
Good agricultural practices Remediation of polluted soils Prevention of erosion and silting Containment of hazardous waste and waste water treatment using land treatment techniques.

25 NOISE POLLUTION CONTROL Control noise at source by proper
choice of equipment, design modification , mounting and proper layout. Isolation or use of baffles. Use of ear protection devices.


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