3 POLLUTION Is the introduction by man into the environment of contaminantsthat containsharmful substancesIntroduction by man,waste matter orsurplus energy intothe environment,which directly orindirectly causesdamage to man andhis environment
4 POLLUTANT A substance or effect which adversely alters the environment bychanging the growth rate of species,interferes with the food chain, is toxic,or interferes with health, comfortamenities or property values of people.
5 EFFECTS ON BIOSPHERE Damage to human health by specific chemical substances present in the air, food,water and radioactive materialDamage to natural environment affectingvegetation, animals, crops, soil and waterDamage to visual quality by smoke, fumes,dust, noise and waste.Damage by carcinogens, radioactivematerials and excessive noise.
6 TYPES OF POLLUTION Water Pollution Air Pollution Land Pollution Noise PollutionWaste pollutionThermal PollutionVisual Pollution
7 WATER POLLUTIONWater pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities.
8 CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION Water ( about 99%) Solids Carbohydrates Proteins (These are referred to asFat “organic material”.)Nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorus)Microorganisms. (On average there are about 10million per ml of wastewater. Many are pathogens)
9 sources of WATER POLLUTION Throwing trashes in water. Throwing low batteries inwater , lakes , rivers and etc.The chemicals from factoriesthat might flow to rivers
10 AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemicalparticulate matter are biological agent.The atmosphere is a complex ,dynamic naturalgaseous system is that is essential to supportlife on the planet earth .Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollutionhas long been recognized as a threat to humanhealth as well as to the earth ecosystem.
11 EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION Humans Animals Vegetation Materials Global warmingOzone depletionAcid RainVarious respiratoryillnesses.
12 LAND POLLUTION Urbanization and Concentration of Population Municipal Solid WasteIndustrial Waste and Hazardous WasteUncontrolled .Land Treatment.Burning open dumps and forest firesDeforestationMining and Erosion
13 NOISE POLLUTIONNoise pollution or environmental noise is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the activity or happiness of human or animal life. A common form of noise pollution is from transportation, principally motor vehicles. The word "noise" comes from the Latin word nausea meaning "seasickness", or from a derivative (perhaps Latin noxia) of Latin noceō = "I do harm", referring originally to nuisance noise.
14 EFFECT OF NOISE POLLUTION No one on earth can escape the sounds of noise-an unwanted, disturbing sound that causes anuisance in the eye of the beholder.There are numerous effects on the humanenvironment due to the increase in noisepollution.Major sources of noise can be airplanes attakeoff and landing, and a truck just off theassembly line, yet we seem accept and enjoycountless other sounds, from hard rock music toloud Harley Davidson motor cycles.
15 WASTE POLLUTIONWaste, rubbish, trash, garbage, or junk is unwanted or undesired material. "Waste" is the general term; though the other terms are used loosely as synonyms, they have more specific meanings: rubbish or trash are mixed household waste and including paper and packaging; food waste or garbage (North America) is kitchen and table waste; and junk or scrap is metallic or industrial material. There are other categories of waste as well: sewage, ash, manure, and plant materials from garden operations, including grass cuttings, fallen leaves, and pruned branches.
16 THERMAL POLLUTION Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changesambient water temperature.A common cause of thermal pollution isthe use of water as a coolant by powerplant and industrial manufacturers.When water used as a coolant is returnedto the natural environment at a highertemperature, the change in temperature(a) decreases oxygen supply, and(b) affects ecosystem composition.
17 VISUAL POLLUTION Visual pollution is the term given to unattractive and man-made visual elements of a vista,a landscape, or any other thing that a persondoes not feel comfortable to look at.Visual pollution is an aesthetic issue,referring to the impacts of pollution thatimpair one's ability to enjoy a vista or view.The term is used broadly to cover visibility,limits on the ability to view distant objects, aswell as the more subjective issue of visual clutter.
18 POLLUTION MANAGMENT Pollution can be controlled by proper choice of preventiveand remedial measures
20 WASTEWATER PROCESSING Wastewater Air emissions Water Primary Treatment SecondaryTreatmentTertiaryTreatmentPrimary sludgeSecondary SludgeTertiary Sludge
21 PHYSICAL METHOD Objective: Solvent extraction Remove solid or liquid pollutantsbased on densitydifference or otherphysical property(eg. SS or floating solids)Solvent extractionEvaporationDistillationFiltrationReverse OsmosisElectro dialysisAdsorption
22 BIOLOGICAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT Aerobic treatment Anaerobic treatment The organic load is defined by theBiological Oxygen demand (BOD).In aerobic systems the water is aerated withcompressed air (in some cases oxygen).Anaerobic systems run under oxygen freeconditions -biogas is a useful product.
23 AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Use tall stacks 80% of the air pollution load iscontributed by the transport sectorUse tall stacksSource reduction by process and rawmaterial changes (eg. Improved furnacedesign and low S fuel)Recover valuable material (eg. Hg)Bag filters, scrubbers, ESP, cyclone separatorsAbsorption, adsorption, combustion andcatalytic reaction
24 LAND POLLUTION CONTROL Integrated Solid Waste Management Good agricultural practicesRemediation of polluted soilsPrevention of erosion and siltingContainment of hazardous waste andwaste water treatment using land treatmenttechniques.
25 NOISE POLLUTION CONTROL Control noise at source by proper choice of equipment, design modification ,mounting and proper layout.Isolation or use of baffles.Use of ear protection devices.