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Introduction to the AP Language & Composition Synthesis Essay Source: %20Sources%202009_T_Sy.pdf.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the AP Language & Composition Synthesis Essay Source: %20Sources%202009_T_Sy.pdf."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to the AP Language & Composition Synthesis Essay Source: %20Sources%202009_T_Sy.pdf

2 Introduction to AP Synthesis Lesson Goals Understand and address synthesis prompts Read and analyze four sources Write a well organized, insightful essay synthesizing the sources for support. DAY 1

3 Five Canons of Rhetoric 1.Inventio – Invention 2.Dispositio – Arrangement 3.Elocutio – Style 4.Memoria – Memory 5.Pronuntiatio - Delivery DAY 1

4 Canons of Rhetoric: Inventio (Invention) Think of what to write and how to convince your audience. Brainstorm, prewrite, use graphic organizers, etc. to plot out ideas for your essay. Find the evidence you are going to use in your essay. DAY 1

5 Canons of Rhetoric: Dispositio (Arrangement) AP exam synthesis prompt invents evidence. Your job is to arrange examples in a way that best supports your assertions on the issue. Evaluate your set of given sources, choose 3-4, and arrange them for maximum effect. DAY 1

6 Canons of Rhetoric: Elecutio (Style) Grammatically correct Clear Appropriate for the subject and audience Ornamented using language in an unusual or inventive way to draw in and hold your audience (use figurative language, but avoid cliché) DAY 1

7 Canons of Rhetoric: Memoria (Memory) AP exam synthesis prompt invents evidence. DAY 1

8 Canons of Rhetoric: Pronuntiatio (Delivery) Method of presenting the material Already chosen in advance – essay DAY 1

9 The Rules of the Game 1.Synthesize sources into an argument that responds to the prompt. 2.Refer to sources to develop your position; explain both sides of the issue. 3.Cite sources – signal with author; (Source F). 4.Sources are only examples; your idea about the topic is the reason for the essay. 5.Do not rely on summaries of the sources to make your argument – AP readers know the sources. DAY 1

10 The Topic AP test creators want you to succeed if you meet college standards. Topics are “average AP high school doable” (past prompts: TV ads to museum building) Summary of issue plus evidence to support either side is provided. DAY 1

11 Serious Approach Skeptical – non-judgment until all facts have been revealed; neutral and unprejudiced inquiry; doubtful – YES Cynical – contemptuously suspicious or distrustful, sarcastic, cheap jokes at expense of argument – NO If you think of it, chances are, someone else did, too, and, if you are the 98 th student to make the same lame joke, EPIC FAIL! DAY 1

12 Three Skeptical Questions From what type of source was this source pulled? Newspaper? Television? Blog? Novel? Well-known / famous? Does it have a face or is it anonymous? Professional or amateur? Discuss: Why might this be important information for you as the author of the essay? DAY 2

13 Three Skeptical Questions What is the stated purpose of this source? To inform? To entertain? To persuade? To satirize (or simply ridicule)? Discuss: Why might this be important information for you as the author of the essay? DAY 2

14 Three Skeptical Questions What possible bias could this source have in making this statement? Openly biased or a hidden agenda? Objective but leaning to one side of the issue? Neutral? Discuss: Why might this be important information for you as the author of the essay? DAY 2

15 Bibliographic Information If it’s there, the test writers expect it to be helpful. Discuss: Why might this be important information for you as the author of the essay? DAY 2

16 Source A: “Ban the Penny” by Mark Lewis Read the article then highlight evidence and/or answer in the margins: 1.What type of source is this? 2.What is the stated purpose? 3.What possible bias might it contain? Why? DAY 3

17 Source A: “Ban the Penny” by Mark Lewis Read “New York–… copper-coated scourge” and address the following in the margins: 1.Define “alliteration.” 2.Mark each instance of alliteration in the first paragraph. 3.What effect does the alliteration have on the speaker’s tone? DAY 3

18 Source A: “Ban the Penny” by Mark Lewis Read “Kolbe, an Arizona… penny unnecessary” and address the following in the margins: 1.In context, what does “languishing” mean? 2.What possible issues might arise from rounding cash transactions? DAY 3

19 Source A: “Ban the Penny” by Mark Lewis Read “It’s practically… appearance’s sake” and address the following in the margins: 1.Why would Tennesseans in particular be fans of the penny? DAY 3

20 Source A: “Ban the Penny” by Mark Lewis Read “Just last week… mostly of copper” and address the following in the margins: 1.Define “irony.” 2.What is ironic about the penny fans’ indictment of Kolbe and Arizona? DAY 3

21 Source A: “Ban the Penny” by Mark Lewis Read “Perhaps the university… from his mines” and address the following in the margins: 1.What is the connection between Kolbe and Wharton? 2.What is the author’s intent in bringing up this connection? 3.Does this source support or challenge the use of the penny? DAY 3

22 Remember Number; Move at “GO” Numbers 1, 4, & 7 read & discuss Source B: “Penny Pinchers” by Ric Kahn Numbers 2, 5, & 8 read & discuss Source C: “Abolish the Penny” by William Safire Numbers 3, 6, & 9 read & discuss Source D: The Harris Poll Results Answer all questions in the margins & prepare to share. DAY 4

23 Recap Sources SOURCEPROCONHOW TO USE SOURCE IN ESSAY SOURCE A (LEWIS)XXBecause much of the diction is tongue-in-cheek, it trivializes the question of abolishing the penny; therefore this source would be good for dismissing potential counterarguments. On the other hand, the exaggerated language, taken out of context, could be used also to dismiss the penny itself. SOURCE B1 (KAHN)XClearly, the source is against continuing to issue the penny. Several lines suggest that the penny is past its prime at best and a nuisance to society otherwise. Coinstar even goes so far as to suggest that it is a source of waste and corruption. SOURCE B2 (KAHN)XGore’s calculations are designed to make the reader believe that the penny is useless to society. The argument could go both ways: pennies do have monetary value and can add up over time, but the amount of time and effort needed to collect $13k is impractical. SOURCE B3 (KAHN)Complete alone or with a partner or small group. SOURCE C (SAFIRE)Complete alone or with a partner or small group. SOURCE D (HARRIS)Complete alone or with a partner or small group. DAY 4

24 Thesis Statement Take a stand one way or the other (even if qualifying). Questions to consider: What is your position on the topic? For which side do you have the most evidence (in your recap)? Examine and evaluate both sides of the issue. The penny should be state your stance because give a GENERAL statement of your reasoning. DAY 4

25 Choose Sources (at least 3) For each source you choose: List source (source letter, title, & author). Copy one direct quote from the source. Explain how the quote supports your stance. NOTE: The second source is a great opportunity for a concession (like counterargument paragraph in argument essay). Consider evidence that counters your thesis that could also be turned to your advantage. DAY 4

26 Write Essay In an essay that synthesizes at least three of the sources, take a position that defends, challenges or qualifies the abolition of the U.S. one cent coin, the penny. Refer to the sources as Source A, Source B, etc. or by the author’s last name. NOTE: When referring to a source in a signal phrase, use author last name or document title. When citing in parentheses, use (author’s last name) or (Source X). DAY 5


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