2The progressive era…what was it??? Women’s RightsThe progressive era…what was it???Women want more a role that is more that just wife and mother.Higher education for women opened doors to other careers such as:Reformers urge a broad range of social and political changes.TeachersNursesSocial Work that formed new organizations
3Women’s RightsWorking women face hardshipsLong hoursDangerous working conditionsEasily bullied and cheated by their employersCan’t vote…so they can’t have a say in the workplace environment
41903 Workday was capped at 10 hours 1908 The law is reviewed. Women’s RightsMuller V. Oregon1903 Workday was capped at 10 hours1908 The law is reviewed.Argued that the long hours harmed working women and their families.Because they are mothers they are “properly placed in a class” by themselves.Laws could now limit the work hoursLater this ruling would justify women getting paid less for the same job as a woman to 1920
51899 National Consumers League Women’s Rights1899 National Consumers LeagueFlorence Kelly founded because she felt women were hurt by unfair prices of goods used to run their homesLabels “goods produced under fair, safe, and healthy working conditions”
61899 National Consumers League Women’s Rights1899 National Consumers LeagueInspect meatpacking plantsWorkplace safetyPayments to unemployed.
7Women’s Trade Union League Women’s RightsWomen’s Trade Union LeagueFounded by KelleyTried to improve working conditions for womenPushed for federal laws that set a minimum wage and 8 hour day.Created the first strike fund
8Women’s RightsProgressive Women- what did they want?To improve family life!!!
9Women’s RightsWCTU What are they up to?More temperanceWhat is it again?Never drinking!This group gains members and momentumTheir work pays off in the form of…The 18th Amendment!
10Women’s RightsWCTU What are they up to?What is the 18th Amendment???Outlawed the Production and Sale of Alcohol!
11Women’s RightsWho is she and why is she important?Margaret SangerFelt that family life and women’s health would improve if women had fewer children
121916 She opened the first birth control clinic Women’s Rights1916 She opened the first birth control clinicMargaret SangerFelt her mother dies due to 11 child births and 7 miscarriages…it began her crusade (it was really TB)In 1914 she coined the term "birth control" and soon began to provide women with information and contraceptives. Indicted in 1915 for sending diaphragms through the mail and arrested in 1916 for opening the first birth control clinic in the country, Sanger would not be deterred.She was jailed many times as a “public nuisance”Finally a federal judge said doctors could hand out information on family planning!
13Women’s Rights1921 Sanger founds:American Birth Control LeagueMargaret SangerShe made family planning information available to more women.
14Women’s Rights1896: National Association of Colored Women (NACW)Ida WellsGoal:To help families strive for successAssist those who were less fortunate
15Women’s RightsNACW helped to set up day care centersIda WellsGoal:Protect and educate black children while their parents went to work
16Anti- Lynching Campaign Women’s RightsAnti- Lynching CampaignBoth parents slaves in MississippiShe kept her family together after her parents die by teaching school.On a train…she refused to give up her seat and move to the already overcrowded smoking car1892 while living in Memphis…racial tension was growingViolence was becoming the norm. Her three friends, Thomas Moss, Calvin McDowell, and Henry Stewart, owned the People's Grocery Company. It was doing well and was seen as competitive with a white-owned grocery store across the street. While Wells was out of town in Natchez, Mississippi, a white mob invaded her friends' store. During the altercation, three white men were shot and injured. Moss, McDowell, and Stewart were arrested and jailed. A large lynch mob stormed the jail and killed the three men.After the lynching of her friends, Wells wrote in Free Speech and Headlight, urging blacks to leave Memphis:There is, therefore, only one thing left to do; save our money and leave a town which will neither protect our lives and property, nor give us a fair trial in the courts, but takes us out and murders us in cold blood when accused by white persons.Wells emphasized the public spectacle of the lynching. Over 6,000 blacks did leave; others organized boycotts of white-owned businesses. After being threatened with violence, she bought a pistol. She later wrote, "They had made me an exile and threatened my life for hinting at the truth."
17Women’s Rights The West Women's suffrage laws before passage of the Nineteenth Amendment green: Full suffrageorange: presidential suffragedark blue: primary suffragelt. Blue: school tax or bond suffragePink: primary suffrage in some citiesRed: no suffrageBurgundy: municipal suffrage in some citiesStripe yellow and orange:Strip orange and redYellow: municipal suffrageOn the whole, western states and territories were more favorable to women's suffrage than eastern ones (see map). It has been suggested that western areas, faced with a shortage of women on the frontier, "sweetened the deal" in order to make themselves more attractive to women so as to encourage female immigration or that they gave the vote as a reward to those women already there. Susan Anthony said that western men were more chivalrous than their eastern brethren. In 1871 Anthony and Stanton toured several western states, with special attention to the territories of Wyoming and Utah where women already had equal suffrage. Their suffragist speeches were often ridiculed or denounced by the opinion makers - the politicians, ministers, and editors. Anthony returned to the West in 1877, 1895, and By the last trip, at age 76, Anthony's views had gained popularity and respect. Activists concentrated on the single issue of suffrage and went directly to the opinion makers to educate them and to persuade them to support the goal of suffrage.By 1920 when women got the vote nationwide, Wyoming women had already been voting for half a century.
18Women’s RightsMay 1890…The AWSA and NWSA become one again!But Why???
19Women’s Rights1887 Stone purposed that the AWSA and NSWA meet to discuss a union of the 2 groupsStone stated that the differences between the two organizations "have since been largely removed by the adoption of common principles and methods."
20Women’s RightsIt took the next 2 years for the ladies to come to an agreement!At this point Stanton has distanced herself from Suffrage1889 Anthony campaigns for the union and for Stanton to be the president.Of Stone and Anthony, Stanton wrote: "Lucy and Susan alike see suffrage only. They do not see woman's religious and social bondage."
21Women’s RightsIn February of 1890 the newly-unified National American Woman Suffrage Association held its first convention in Washington, D.C., combining the AWSA and NWSA membershipsNAWSAStone was to ill to attend the first national conference, but she was elected to the executive committee. Stanton was named president and Anthony was the vice president.Matilda Joslyn Gage, Olympia Brown and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were each alienated by the merger; together, their interests were too radical for the new NAWSA. Stanton turned toward work on The Woman's Bible with Gage, Brown and a Revising Committee of two dozen other women. With Stanton, the committee wished to correct the historical bias that men had introduced into the Bible. This effort led to conflict with the NAWSA; in 1896, Rachel Foster Avery and a slim majority of younger NAWSA members voted to distance the organization from The Woman's Bible and from Stanton. The NAWSA membership wished to focus on one single issue: the drive to gain for women the right to vote.
22Women’s RightsStanton is a figurehead president and Anthony runs the NAWSA in her absence.Stanton passes on October 26, 1902Anthony passes on March 3, 1906The torch is passed to:Carrie Catt Chapman
23Women’s RightsCarrie Catt ChapmanEducated woman- graduated from collegeCampaigns for suffrage in Iowa in 1880’sMember of WCTUClose friend and colleague of Anthony
24Women’s RightsCarrie Catt ChapmanAnthony selects Chapman as her successor as president of NAWSAServes from 1900 to 1904Serves a second term from
25Women’s Rights Alice Paul Hicksite Quakers, Alice's parents raised her with a belief in gender equality, and the need to work for the betterment of society. Hicksite Quakers stressed separation from the burgeoning materialistic society and advocated the benefits of staying close to nature."When you put your hand to the plow, you can't put it down until you get to the end of the row. “ --Alice’s motherHer mother was a member of NAWSA and took Alice to suffrage meetings as a very young girl.Alice Paul