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Deterring Deer and Other Critters Original Presentation by Bob Nixon Presented by Kent Phillips Howard County MG

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1 Deterring Deer and Other Critters Original Presentation by Bob Nixon Presented by Kent Phillips Howard County MG

2 2 College of Agriculture and Natural Resources

3 Deterring Deer and Other Critters This presentation can be found on the Howard County Master Gardener website – – Click on MG Contacts tab – Click on Howard County Master Gardeners – Click on Grow It! Eat It! – Click on GIEI Howard County Presentations



6 How to Garden Successfully in Deer Country Suggestions to help you grow vegetables, flowers, & other plants where deer eat just about everything

7 What we’re going to discuss Facts about deer Publications about deer & gardening Deer, vegetables & small fruits Recipes for venison Deer & flowers (perennials) Deer & shrubs & trees 7-point summary Other Critters

8 Deer, love'em or …

9 Maryland deer history 1634: Fr. Andrew White, priest & journalist, wrote that deer were so plentiful “that they are rather an annoyance than an advantage.” Native Americans and colonists used deer for food & clothing, with increasing exports of venison & hides to Europe. 1729: Legislature prohibited deer hunting between January 15 and July 31. Fine: 400 lbs. of tobacco for each infraction. 17 th through 19 th Centuries: Forests of eastern and central counties cleared for agriculture. Natural predators—wolves, mountain lions, bears—exterminated. No limits on deer killed.

10 Deer in the 20 th Century 1902: So few deer remained in Maryland that hunting was prohibited 1910 deer population (est.) – U.S.A., 500,000 – Maryland, <2000, nearly all in 4 western counties (Garrett, Allegany, Washington, & Frederick) – Howard County, zero to <100 1910s through 1930s: Deer imported from Michigan and Pennsylvania. Then the increasing local herds used to establish new herds around state. 1927: Deer hunting resumes in Allegany County, with five bucks killed.

11 Deer now 2011 to 2012 Maryland hunting season – 98,029 killed statewide – 2,999 killed in Howard County – Ratio of 2.5 to 1 antlerless to antlered Current deer population (est.) – U.S.: >20 million – Maryland: <230,000 – Howard County: >10,000 or <40/square mile – Sustainable: 15 to 20/square mile

12 Howard County parks & lands FLIR technology used for annual survey (2009) Low concentration: Schooley Mill, 17.2/square mile – 5/0.29 square mile High concentration: Belmont, 450/square mile – 90/0.2 square mile Average of 16 areas: 46.1/square mile – 772/16.73 square miles Feeding pressure is very high because of overpopulation

13 Detailed information Maryland White-tailed Deer Plan 2009-2018, 83 pp: /2009-2018marylandwtdeerplan.pdf Howard County Comprehensive Deer Management Plan Search for “deer management plan”

14 Deer diet January to March: Coniferous browse, deciduous bark & dry leaves, acorns and other nuts, winter fruits such as rose hips, sumac, & poison ivy (4 to 5 lbs/day). April to June: Herbaceous plants & grasses followed by buds & shoots of shrubs & trees (7 to 10 lbs/day). July & August: Herbaceous vegetation, young leaves, new growth of shrubs and trees, gardens. September to December: Soft (fruits) & hard (nuts) mast. Acorns make up to 50% of diet. Bramble leaves, mushrooms, gardens.

15 Typical diet, but … “Deer will attempt to eat almost anything if their population is high and they are running out of food. That happens most often in times of drought or near the end of a colder-than-normal winter.” Scott Aker, horticulturist, U.S. National Arboretum, in his “Digging In” column, Washington Post

16 Why do deer prefer tender grasses and herbaceous plants, buds, leaves, and new growth of shrubs and trees? They have incisors only on the bottom, so they pull/pinch rather than cut their forage. Their bottom incisors impact on upper pad of cartilage.

17 Bob’s favorite book Chapter 1: Deer (56 pages) Chapter 21: Research on Deer (5 pages) Chapter 22: Deer-Resistant Plants (37 pp., with list of 1,000+ plants in categories) Chapter 23: Profiles of Deer- Resistant Plants (65 pages) 935.0496S All 6 HoCo Libraries

18 Other books Rhonda Hart, Deer Proofing Your Yard & Garden (1997) 635.0496H (5 HoCo Libraries) Bill Adler, Jr., Outwitting Deer (1999) 635.0496A (All 6 HoCo Libraries) Vincent Drzewucki, Jr., Gardening in Deer Country (1998) 635.0496D (4 HoCo Libraries)

19 Favorite Websites & Publications woodland/publications-library-wildlife-and-insect- damage woodland/publications-library-wildlife-and-insect- damage Fact sheet 635 & 635a – Resistance of Woody Ornamentals to Deer Damage – Fact Sheet 810 – Repellents – Landscape Plants rated by Deer Resistance – Searchable and color coded – Website contains information on trees, shrubs, vines, annuals, perennials, & bulbs that are Rarely damaged Seldom severely damaged Occasionally severely damaged & Frequently severely damaged

20 Favorite Websites (cont.) woodland/workshop-resources-library woodland/workshop-resources-library – Bulletin 354c – Managing Deer Damage in Maryland – Extensive information on Vegetation management – planting vegetation less preferred by deer Deer repellents including costs – Most are for use on non-edible plants Fencing including costs – Electric – Plastic – Metal Management by population reduction

21 Vegetables & Small Fruits Deer Don’t eat 1.“Can’t think of one” 2.Onions and Garlic 3.Some herbs, such as rosemary, parsley, fennel, mints, sages

22 Keeping Deer Out of the Vegetable Garden Recommendation – fencing is best See Extension Bulletin 354c – Seven and a half to eight feet a must Plastic is cheapest – Electric – works best if baited – Contained dogs – Repellent sprays

23 Lake Elkhorn Community Gardens

24 Electric Fence

25 Seven and a half foot plastic

26 Herding dog with “Invisible Fence” works well Gromit Photos: Cindy M. Taunting Gromit

27 Repellent sprays Evaluate repellent sprays by their active ingredient not their name. Repellents may eventually fail, if so, rotate. Best results obtained if used prior to spring feeding patterns being established. Repellent sprays for edibles must be labeled as such. Always wash fresh fruits & vegetables before preparing & eating them. Read label carefully and follow manufacturer directions. Reapplication is necessary, especially after rains or when plants are putting out new growth.

28 Repellents HGIC Fact Sheet 810 Repellents are generally more effective when the following conditions exist: – Low to moderate deer pressure; – Light to moderate feeding damage; – Small acreage; – Repellents are not being used on adjacent properties, and – Alternative food sources are available. If any of the above conditions are not typical of your situation, then you should compare the cost of using repellents to fencing systems or other available deer management practices. Must be reapplied as new foliage appears Longer effectiveness on dormant plants

29 Deterring Deer From Eating The Landscape What a wonderful cafeteria!

30 Recommendations for Protecting Flowers 1.Plant resistant varieties (27 suggestions) 2.Have a good fence—or a deer-chasing dog 3.Plant in container on deck 4.Use repellent sprays 5.Learn to live with them

31 N.B./Nota Bene/Please Note This is not a definitive list. It is based on the experience of 28 local gardeners. Deer diets differ from area to area. So please use these lists as a starting point for your personal experimentation. Study other lists cited previously. Ask other neighborhood gardeners about what works for them.

32 27 Deer-resistant Flowers 1. Daffodil 2. Bleeding Heart 3. Peony 4. Lily-of-the-Valley 5. Moss Phlox 6. Hardy Orchid 7. Garden Pinks 8. Stella d’Oro Daylily 9. Siberian Iris 10. Red Hot Poker 11. Lavender 12. Salvia 13. Beardtongue 14. Rose Campion 15. Daisy 16. Allium 17. Butterfly Weed 18. Blazingstar 19. Threadleaf Coreopsis 20. Blanket Flower 21. Lamb’s Ear 22. Yarrow 23. Russian Sage 24. Goldenrod 25. Spotted Mint 26. Sweet Autumn Clematis 27. Ornamental Grasses

33 “Deer-resistant Dozen,” by Michelle Leise Gardening How-To Magazine, Feb. 2010 Bee balm (Monarda didyma) Boxwood (Buxus spp.) Daffodil (Narcissus spp.) Hellebore (Helleborus spp.) Lambs’ ears (Stachys byzantina) Lavender (Lavandula spp.) Ornamental grasses Peony (Paeonia spp.) Prostrate (or creeping) speedwell (Veronica prostrata) Sage (Salvia spp.) Siberian iris (Iris sibirica) Spotted deadnettle (Lamium maculatum)

34 “Plants Deer Don’t Eat", Joel Lerner’s Green Scene column, Post, April 20, 2010, E5 Viburnums Magnolias Thorny hollies Hellebores Rohdeas Foxgloves Irises Daffodils Catmints

35 Recommendations for Protecting Shrubs and Trees 1. Plant resistant varieties 2. Protect shrubs and tree trunks against “rubbing” 3. Protect trees below “browse line”

36 Deer-resistant Shrubs & Trees S1. Boxwood S2. Lilac S3. Heather S4. Butterfly Bush T1. Junipers T2. Spruces

37 Protect Shrubs & Trunks of Young Trees from Fall “Rubbing” Bucks remove dead “velvet” and polish their new antlers in October and November by using trunks of young trees and branches of shrubs If the buck rubs through the bark all around a trunk, the tree may die Howard County Recreation & Parks/Stream ReLeaf program

38 More examples of rubbing Smooth Sumac (Rhus glabra) Redosier Dogwood (Cornus sericea) Gifts from Howard County Recreation & Parks/Stream ReLeaf program

39 Protect trees below “browse line,” about 5’ from ground to lower limbs

40 Black gum (Tupelo) with trunk protector and with cage to browse line Use welded wire (2”x3”), not plastic mesh or chicken wire, plus two stakes, both preferably iron to protect to browse line. Hang wire high enough for your mower to clear. Trunk protector can be hardware cloth, plastic, even plastic stake or rebar. Howard County Recreation & Parks/Stream ReLeaf program

41 Summary of suggestions for successful gardening in deer country 1.Install a fence 2.Plant resistant varieties 3.Buy a dog to chase deer out of your yard 4.Be a persistent sprayer 5.Protect shrubs & young trees up to the “browse line” (about 5’+) 6.Remember that deer don’t read “don’t eat” lists and in tough times will eat about anything 7.Plant enough so you won’t mind sharing some 8.Keep reading and comparing notes with other gardeners 9.Relax! Deer are part of the environment!”

42 Bob’s blog… “Deer Country” series includes small segments from this PowerPoint program. Find a posting in the series, click on “Label: DeerCountry” at the end of the posting, and you’ll get a list of all the “Deer Country” postings, including most of the photographs.

43 Other Nuisance Wildlife Woodchucks Squirrels Raccoons Skunks Voles

44 Information on Nuisance Wildlife Nuisance Wildlife Information Line (NWIL) – 1-877-463-6497 8 am to noon and 1 to 5 pm. – Maintains a list of Nuisance Wildlife Control Cooperators. Home and Garden Information Center – library/home-and-garden-information-center- publications#wildlife library/home-and-garden-information-center- publications#wildlife – HG 90 Dealing with Nuisance Wildlife – Wildlife Tips

45 Woodchucks Gardener’s Enemy No. 2

46 Woodchuck Control Fencing — woodchucks can climb – Metal wire fence 4 feet tall with strand of electrified fence on top – Same fence with top foot slanted outward at 45⁰ or leave top lose to fall outward – Bury fence a foot under ground or – make an one foot L shape away from garden and bury several inches under ground Trapping — no permit required – Live trap using Havahart style trap Bait with apple or cantaloupe Relocation — need a permit to relocate – Euthanize — use a body trap or take animal to animal control No repellents registered for control Best removed in – early spring when young are in the burrow or – late fall prior to hibernation

47 Squirrels Squirrels are protected – Must obtain a permit from NWIL if trapping and releasing. Permission must be obtained from landowner to release on property Fencing — same as for woodchuck Live trapping same as woodchuck, different bait Some registered repellents but they have a limited success rate Squirrels love to take a bite out of tomatoes – Cover tomatoes with paper bag to discourage Plant bulbs under wire that extends a foot beyond bulb bed

48 Raccoons Raccoons like corn and cantaloupe No repellents registered Fencing — must be electrified Trapping — NWIL raccoon must be euthanized Trash cans – Buy ones with latches – Bunge cord lid down tight Remove all outside food sources like bird feed and dog food

49 Skunks Most homeowners hire a licensed nuisance wildlife control cooperator to remove skunks Remove outside food sources like bird food and dog food

50 Rabbits Most effective control is fencing – S/B two feet tall and buried several inches in the ground

51 Voles Can be destructive to root crops and tree or shrub bark Use snap traps – baited with apple or peanut butter – baited with cotton balls — nesting material Modify habitat – Mulch s/b no more than an inch deep – Don’t use landscape fabrics – Mow weedy or overgrown areas – Increase plant spacing to reduce cover

52 Additional Wildlife Info NWIL 1-877-463-6497 click on wildlife tab Publications from Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management –

53 The End


55 This program was brought to you by Maryland Master Garden Program Howard County University of Maryland Extension

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