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Outlining & Organizing Technical Texts Dr. Fouad Khalaf Professor of P. E Oct. 2010 CUFE, M. Sc. Che & MPM, 2010-2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Outlining & Organizing Technical Texts Dr. Fouad Khalaf Professor of P. E Oct. 2010 CUFE, M. Sc. Che & MPM, 2010-2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Outlining & Organizing Technical Texts Dr. Fouad Khalaf Professor of P. E Oct CUFE, M. Sc. Che & MPM,

2 The Processes of Writing 1. Define SMCR+(OFST). P 2. Collect Ideas. I 3. Outline. P 4. Organize. P 5. Field check. C 6. Write /Type text. I 7. Revi se. C, Im 8. Field check. C, Im 9. Edit /Proofread. C, Im 10. Print, Bind, Distribute. I 11. Collect feedback. 12. Improve. C, Im

3 Basic Steps Parts, Sentences & Paragraph 1.Define SMCROFES. 2.Collect data. 3.Outline ideas. 4.Organize outline. 5.Write.  6.Revise text. 7.Field-check. 8.Edit. 9.Dispatch. 10.Get feedback. 11.Evaluate. Improve. Introduction Body Conclusion Way-to-begin 1.Develop the sub- topic into effective sentences. Way-to- develop 2.Conclude paragraphs. 3.Write transition between paragraphs. 4.Write the last paragraph.

4 Outlining is representing ideas in short, general terms. ♣ helps remember major ideas. ♣ helps organize thoughts and writing plans. ♣ saves writer's time. ♣ imposes control on writing.

5 Types of Outlines History ( one word ) History of smog in Greater Cairo ( phrase ) Collect information related to “History of smog in greater Cairo.” ( sentence ) Nuisance of smog Nuisance caused by smog Nuisance caused by smog in Greater Cairo during fall seasons Smog has caused many problems to handicapped people. Gather information about types of nuisance, who suffers, extent of damage, … etc.

6 Types of Outlines Sentence outline (SO) In SO, ideas are complete sentences. SO formulates clear ideas. SO remains clear if left for a long time. SO may become cumbersome. Topic outline (TO) Using phrases to express ideas Advantages: shortness Disadvantages: lack of clarity Mixed outlining (MO) For major topics, use sentence outline. TO for minor topics.

7 Outlines should show balanced structures Coordinated lists: equal significance. Correct coordination A. Word processing programs B. Database programs C. Spreadsheet programs Faulty coordination cairo Cairo A. Word processing programs B. Advantages of Microsoft POWEPOINT Powerpoint Powerpoint PowerPoint C. History of animation audiovisual presentations

8 For Numbering Alphanumerical I A. 1. a. b. Decimal

9 Outline the following paragraph 1. The two processes, speaking and writing, are not identical. 2. Writing is not simply speech written down on paper. 3. Learning to write is not just a natural extension of learning to speak a language. 4. We learned to speak our first language at home without systematic instruction; whereas, most of us had to be taught in school how to write that same language. 5. Many adult native speakers of a language find writing difficult. 6. A speaker speaks to a listener who is right there, nodding or frowning, or interrupting or questioning. 7. For the writer, the reader's response is either delayed or nonexistent. 8. When one looks at these differences – and there are few more – we can see that the students will not just pick-up writing as they learn other skills in classes. 9. We have to teach them writing. Reverse Outlining

10 Topic Outline Differences between speaking and writing  Writing not written speech on paper  Difference from learning  Speaking at home  Writing in school  The difficulties of writing  Presence of listeners feedback  Absence of readers feedback  Speakers chance  hold readers' attention  Self-learning how to write  We have to teach students how to write (sentence outline, a main idea).

11 Sentence Outline Speaking and writing, are not identical. 1.Writing is not written speech on paper. 2.Learning to write is not learning to speak. 3.We learned to speak at home. 4.We had to be taught how to write in schools. 5.Writing is difficult. 6.The speaker speaks to listeners. 7.The reader's response is absent. 8.The writer has one chance to hold the readers' attention. 9.Students will not pick-up writing alone. 10.We have to teach them writing.

12 Organizing Follows three orders Natural Logical Psychological 1. Natural Orders Time and space (spatial order) Introduction, Body, & Conclusion Alphabetical Order Size, chronological Could be imposed by the subject

13 2. Logical Orders Climactic Order: interest General-to-Specific Order Specific-to-General Cause-to-Effect Analysis Condition-Result (Argument) Other ways: familiarity, complexity, usefulness, utility, cost, impact, …

14 3. Psychological Orders To satisfy the reader using emotional reactions: Acceptability Dominant impression Fear Anxiety Hesitation Prevails in advertisements

15 Organizing Information in Reports Ascending Emphasis importance increases as reading advances. Reverse Climax important ideas are placed at the beginning.

16 Mixed order summary + introduction + the body (details) + conclusions. Summary is descriptive If integrated with the text. If summary is independent, it is informative.

17 details conclusion summary Reverse Emphasis details conclusions summary Emphatic Style summary Conclusions & R Body (details) Three Ways for Organizing Texts Mixed Style Introduction

18 Sample of an Organized Outline I. Major Steps in the Writing Process A.Outlining/Organizing B. Writing C. Evaluating D. Revising II. Use of Word Processors A. Programs & Relationship to Writing 1.Handling Thought 2.Using Word Processors a. Use in writing b. Use in revising B. Pros & Cons of Word Processors 1. Positive features a. Less time spent b. Greater flexibility, …. 2. Negative features ….

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