Presentation on theme: "1/26 Content of lecture 18.1 Waste Composition 18.2 Site Selection 18.3 Groundwater 18.4 Slope/topography 18.5 Distance to settlement/ Public Involvement."— Presentation transcript:
1/26 Content of lecture 18.1 Waste Composition 18.2 Site Selection 18.3 Groundwater 18.4 Slope/topography 18.5 Distance to settlement/ Public Involvement 18.6 Impact assessment 18.7 Legal Requirement 18: Planning a landfill
2/26 18: Planning a landfill General Up to 1970s –waste was a non-issue on political agenda, –unnoticed even by environmentalist groups. Proximity to waste producers was the most important criterion for selection of a site for a waste disposal. No consideration was given to public health or environmental issues. In the 1970s –cases of adverse health effects near waste dumps occurred. Response came from authorities (Politicians, legislators, environmentalists).
3/26 18: Planning a landfill Response from Authorities Setting up policy regarding waste management in order to protect human health and environment in the future –Regulatory requirements to reduce contaminant emissions from waste disposal/treatment facilities Allocating resources to clean up abandoned (hazardous) waste dumps –e.g. Superfund in USA
4/26 Nowadays siting is very much of an issue Due to opposition from the general public, we often see that almost any site is taken if readily available! It seems that the siting process focuses exclusively on getting public consent, rather than include consideration of any other relevant aspect. 18: Planning a landfill
5/26 18.1 Waste Composition Waste from industrialized countries Characteristics: high content of packaging made of paper, plastic, glass and metal Moisture Content: Low Density: Low Waste from developing countries Characteristics: large amounts of inerts such as sand, ash, dust and stones and high moisture levels because of the high usage of fresh fruit and vegetables. Moisture Content: High Density: High 18: Planning a landfill
6/26 18.2 Site Selection … is the most important decision in developing and implementing a waste management plan A poorly chosen site will require high cost on: waste transport site development site operations environmental protection 18: Planning a landfill
7/26 18.2 Site Selection 18: Planning a landfill Chronological development business as usual response from politics public outcry cases of pollution legislationtechnology siting procedure waste characteristics
8/26 18.2 Site Selection 18: Planning a landfill Stages of a siting process Introductory stage –making key decisions about area to be served type and composition of waste to be landfilled target lifetime (minimum 10 years) –developing a work plan for site selection Main stage –Preliminary site selection –Identification of the selection criteria –Decision of relative importance of the selection criteria –Establishing a ranking of the sites –Final selection
9/26 18.2 Site Selection 18: Planning a landfill Making the key decisions Establish current situation –review existing facilities –calculate remaining capacity & find waste composition Define future needs –estimate future waste quantities –estimate future (changes of) waste composition Introductory Stage Work plan for site selection Elements of the plan are dictated by legal and administrative procedures and requirements in force within the area. These elements as well as their sequence may differ from country to country.
10/26 Preliminary site selection - Define search area based on natural and administrative constraints hauling distances. - Make use of maps and visit the sites. - Apply preliminary selection criteria. - Estimate costs involved (economies of scale play a role). - Prepare a list of sites, along with their pros and cons - Size of the site and access - Safety (proximity of airport etc.) -Country planning constraints (drinking water aquifer, protected nature area etc. ) - …… 18: Planning a landfill 18.2 Site Selection
11/26 Final site selection criteria 18: Planning a landfill 18.2 Site Selection Geological aspects Hydrogeological aspects Public health/public acceptance -near residential area -near places of religious, cultural or historical importance -near agricultural sites land -near drinking water wells, ponds, river (in criteria of country planning as well) near airport
12/26 18.3 Groundwater Depth of the water table Permeability of Geological strata Type of Geological strata Toxicity of the leachate contaminants Groundwater flow direction The groundwater contamination by landfill is determined by following factors 18: Planning a landfill
13/26 18.4 Slope/Topography 18.4 Slope/Topography (Geological aspects) - extreme topography - unstable subsoil areas - geologically active faults - seismic impact zones Following potentially unstable geological conditions are to be avoided by Landfill developers 18: Planning a landfill
14/26 Ranking the sites Constraint mapping (using selection criteria) Walkover surveys using a checklist Conceptual design for each site Site investigations Feasibility report and EIA (environmental impact assessment) 18: Planning a landfill 18.4 Slope/Topography
15/26 Homogeneous geology with no fractures Geotechnically stable subsoil Base of the site naturally impermeable Thick unsaturated layer below the base Site far from an aquifer Site far from surface water bodies (sea, lake, river) Site that people accept What is an ideal site 18: Planning a landfill 18.4 Slope/Topography
16/26 18.5 Distance to Settlement 18.5 Distance to Settlement/Involvement of public Nuisance caused by a landfill –nuisance by lorry traffic –nuisance by odours, birds, littering, scavengers Economic impacts - decrease of economic value of houses near a landfill Health and environmental impacts Social impacts - diminished quality of life 18: Planning a landfill
17/26 18.5 Public Involvement 18: Planning a landfill Involvement of public: objectives Public understands needs and proposals. Issues raised by public are heard and addressed. Authority is responsive to public. Opportunity is provided for public to participate in decision-making process.
18/26 18.5 Public Involvement 18: Planning a landfill Disadvantages of public involvement Public may become completely consumed by some details or issues of relatively lesser importance. Disinformation can be spread. It can cause damaging delays. Project can be misused by politicians.
19/26 18.5 Public Involvement 18: Planning a landfill Advantages of Public Involvement People can express their concerns and get answers to their questions. It effectively ensures that authorities take opinions of public into account. Important information may be gathered from people, that may otherwise be missed. It usually results in increased likelihood of gaining public support for the landfill.
20/26 18.6 Pollution risk 18.6 Impact Assessment/Pollution risk Pollution risk impact assessment is a process of estimating the likelihood of occurrence of harmful effects by landfills Example Risk analysts say: At 0.1µg/L of certain chemical in drinking water (e.g. heavy metal) risk of adverse effect on human health is 10 -6. 18: Planning a landfill
21/26 18.6 Pollution risk HAZARD PATHWAY RECEPTOR / TARGET WASTE MIGRATION PEOPLE AND through soil, water, air ENVIRONMENT Basic concept of risk 18: Planning a landfill
22/26 18.6 Pollution risk Risk of pollution by landfills depends on site characteristics, landfill technology and waste composition. Landfills can cause pollution if waste constituents (or products of their decomposition and reactions) reach the environment. This occurs mainly by migration of –liquid (leachate) into subsoil, groundwater and adjacent surface water bodies –gas (landfill gas, biogas) into atmosphere. 18: Planning a landfill
23/26 18.6 Impact Assessment Risk source release assessment –What is the risk of failure of landfill control measures? Exposure assessment –How can contaminant migration take place? Consequence assessment –What effects might an exposed individual experience? Risk estimation –How can results of previous stages be integrated? –What are the uncertainties? Risk assessment for a landfill 18: Planning a landfill
24/26 18.7 Legal Requirements- JOKO? 18: Planning a landfill
25/26 Landfill planning involves the most important decision to reduce cost of waste disposal and environmental impacts The potential impact on the groundwater is one of the most important aspects Landfill planning and site selection are best carried out as a systematic stepwise process Conclusion 18: Planning a landfill
26/26 18: Planning a landfill Thank you for your kind attention!