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1 Neighborhood-Centered Approaches David L. Carter Michigan State University

2 Program Sites l Corsicana’s Turn Around Texas l Garland’s Apartment Managers’ Group l Dallas’ SAFE Team l Beaumont’s Housing Unit l Waco’s Neighborhood Services Section l Arlington’s Geographic Policing Model

3 Neighborhood-Centered Approaches Foundation PREDOMINANT POLICING PROBLEMS  Disorder  Public Nuisance  Burglary PREDOMINANT POLICING PROBLEMS  Disorder  Public Nuisance  Burglary CHARACTER OF THE PROBLEMS  Represent a large number of calls for service  Represents a disproportionately large source of… + Heightened fear of crime + General citizen complaints + Lower quality of life CHARACTER OF THE PROBLEMS  Represent a large number of calls for service  Represents a disproportionately large source of… + Heightened fear of crime + General citizen complaints + Lower quality of life

4 Neighborhood-Centered Approaches Foundation INTENT OF CRIME-SPECIFIC POLICE RESPONSES  Arrest offenders  Influence citizens to report crimes/problems  Use citizens as information/intelligence resource  Motivate citizens as partners to help monitor and resolve problems INTENT OF CRIME-SPECIFIC POLICE RESPONSES  Arrest offenders  Influence citizens to report crimes/problems  Use citizens as information/intelligence resource  Motivate citizens as partners to help monitor and resolve problems GENERAL OBSERVATIONS  Greatest obstacle: Keeping citizens involved  Key strategy: Blend community partnering with tactical policing GENERAL OBSERVATIONS  Greatest obstacle: Keeping citizens involved  Key strategy: Blend community partnering with tactical policing

5 Neighborhood-Centered Approaches Foundation KEY FACTORS  Communications between neighborhood residents and police must increase  Communications between residents must increase  Residents must have a sense of ownership for the entire neighborhood, not just their property  Problems must be addressed on a neighborhood basis, not on artificial boundaries  Police must recognize that problems which may seem minor are serious to residents KEY FACTORS  Communications between neighborhood residents and police must increase  Communications between residents must increase  Residents must have a sense of ownership for the entire neighborhood, not just their property  Problems must be addressed on a neighborhood basis, not on artificial boundaries  Police must recognize that problems which may seem minor are serious to residents

6 Corsicana’s Turn Around Texas SITE DESCRIPTION  28,000 Documented Resident Population  14 Square Miles  45 Sworn Officers  12 Non-sworn SITE DESCRIPTION  28,000 Documented Resident Population  14 Square Miles  45 Sworn Officers  12 Non-sworn ORGANIZATION OF TURN AROUND TEXAS  A community-based organization  Supported by the police department  Police provide security and general assistance ORGANIZATION OF TURN AROUND TEXAS  A community-based organization  Supported by the police department  Police provide security and general assistance

7 Corsicana’s Turn Around Texas PURPOSE To provide “a targeted confrontation, mobilization and education process” led by citizens in conjunction with and support from the police department intended to intimidate drug dealers and drug buyers to stop displace drug transactions. PURPOSE To provide “a targeted confrontation, mobilization and education process” led by citizens in conjunction with and support from the police department intended to intimidate drug dealers and drug buyers to stop displace drug transactions.

8 Corsicana’s Turn Around Texas PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  Police department identifies drug targets  Citizens go through a training program  Police provide transportation and security to marchers  Marchers stand in front of target’s house and chant with intent to intimidate  Marchers sometimes paint “crack house” with arrow on street  Citizen involvement and weekly marches are necessary PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  Police department identifies drug targets  Citizens go through a training program  Police provide transportation and security to marchers  Marchers stand in front of target’s house and chant with intent to intimidate  Marchers sometimes paint “crack house” with arrow on street  Citizen involvement and weekly marches are necessary

9 Corsicana’s Turn Around Texas CRITICAL FACTORS  A commitment by police administration to the program, including a willingness to participate, devote resources, take risks, and permit flexibility for officers to participate.  Officers must be present at all marches for safety, security, and support.  Officers working with Turn Around Texas must have flexibility. CRITICAL FACTORS  A commitment by police administration to the program, including a willingness to participate, devote resources, take risks, and permit flexibility for officers to participate.  Officers must be present at all marches for safety, security, and support.  Officers working with Turn Around Texas must have flexibility.

10 Corsicana’s Turn Around Texas PROGRAM EFFECTS  Virtual elimination of open air drug markets after about one year.  A large number of drug dealers have been displaced outside of Corsicana’s city limits.  Some reduction in violent crime.  Very positive support for the police from the community (including political support.)  The police department has received increased information about drug distribution from neighborhood sources who were previously reluctant to talk with the police. PROGRAM EFFECTS  Virtual elimination of open air drug markets after about one year.  A large number of drug dealers have been displaced outside of Corsicana’s city limits.  Some reduction in violent crime.  Very positive support for the police from the community (including political support.)  The police department has received increased information about drug distribution from neighborhood sources who were previously reluctant to talk with the police.

11 Garland’s Apartment Managers Group SITE DESCRIPTION  200,000 Resident Population  57 Square Miles  287 Sworn Officers  119 Non-sworn SITE DESCRIPTION  200,000 Resident Population  57 Square Miles  287 Sworn Officers  119 Non-sworn ORGANIZATION  The AMG is the responsibility of the day shift Patrol Lieutenant ORGANIZATION  The AMG is the responsibility of the day shift Patrol Lieutenant

12 Garland’s Apartment Managers Group PURPOSE The Apartment Managers Group (AMG) was formed in 1992 to serve as a problem identification, communications, and resource tool to reduce crime problems in apartment complexes. PURPOSE The Apartment Managers Group (AMG) was formed in 1992 to serve as a problem identification, communications, and resource tool to reduce crime problems in apartment complexes.

13 Garland’s Apartment Managers Group PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  All managers of apartment complexes are welcome to join  Monthly meetings are held at the police department + Give AMG members crime analysis data + Discuss crime issues, problems and trends + Guest speaker at each meeting  Monthly newsletter for AMG published by the police department  Police department has a dedicated telephone “hot line” with voice mail for AMG members PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  All managers of apartment complexes are welcome to join  Monthly meetings are held at the police department + Give AMG members crime analysis data + Discuss crime issues, problems and trends + Guest speaker at each meeting  Monthly newsletter for AMG published by the police department  Police department has a dedicated telephone “hot line” with voice mail for AMG members

14 Garland’s Apartment Managers Group CRITICAL FACTORS  Having meetings on a regular basis, regardless of the number of people who attend.  Providing information which is of practical use to the managers at the meeting, even if it falls outside of the law enforcement purview, per se.  Holding monthly AMG meetings at the police department; provides reinforcement that the police are concerned and involved in problems faced by the apartment managers. CRITICAL FACTORS  Having meetings on a regular basis, regardless of the number of people who attend.  Providing information which is of practical use to the managers at the meeting, even if it falls outside of the law enforcement purview, per se.  Holding monthly AMG meetings at the police department; provides reinforcement that the police are concerned and involved in problems faced by the apartment managers.

15 Garland’s Apartment Managers Group CRITICAL FACTORS  Regular contact with the police has increased the quality of the relationship with apartment managers--particularly evident through NPOs  Having constant and open avenues of communications between the AMG members and the police department  Providing information on crime and calls for service to apartment managers.  Help the apartment managers to see the need to communicate with and cooperate with the police. CRITICAL FACTORS  Regular contact with the police has increased the quality of the relationship with apartment managers--particularly evident through NPOs  Having constant and open avenues of communications between the AMG members and the police department  Providing information on crime and calls for service to apartment managers.  Help the apartment managers to see the need to communicate with and cooperate with the police.

16 Garland’s Apartment Managers Group PROGRAM EFFECTS  Crime reduction has been recorded in... + Auto burglary + Residential burglary + Drug trafficking in apartment complexes  Most recently, auto theft has increased and a strategy is being developed to address this problem  While not specifically directed toward quality of life issues, they have nonetheless improved.  Some reduction in calls for service, most likely as a result of eviction or displacement of problem residents. PROGRAM EFFECTS  Crime reduction has been recorded in... + Auto burglary + Residential burglary + Drug trafficking in apartment complexes  Most recently, auto theft has increased and a strategy is being developed to address this problem  While not specifically directed toward quality of life issues, they have nonetheless improved.  Some reduction in calls for service, most likely as a result of eviction or displacement of problem residents.

17 Dallas’ SAFE Team (Support, Abatement, Forfeiture, Enforcement) SITE DESCRIPTION  1,100,000 Documented Resident Population  462 Square Miles  2,886 Sworn Officers  700 Non-sworn SITE DESCRIPTION  1,100,000 Documented Resident Population  462 Square Miles  2,886 Sworn Officers  700 Non-sworn ORGANIZATION  SAFE Team is in the Investigations Bureau, Special Operations Division  Commanded by a Lieutenant who reports to an Assistant Chief  19 sworn officers  7 civilians (includes attorneys and code enforcement) ORGANIZATION  SAFE Team is in the Investigations Bureau, Special Operations Division  Commanded by a Lieutenant who reports to an Assistant Chief  19 sworn officers  7 civilians (includes attorneys and code enforcement)

18 Dallas’ SAFE Team PURPOSE To reclaim, restore, and revitalize Dallas neighborhoods adversely affected by crime through the use of criminal abatement statutes, code enforcement, and civil and criminal processes. PURPOSE To reclaim, restore, and revitalize Dallas neighborhoods adversely affected by crime through the use of criminal abatement statutes, code enforcement, and civil and criminal processes.

19 Dallas’ SAFE Team PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  Criminal nuisance cases are identified through... + Complaints + Referrals + Reviews of special use and zoning permit requests  Case is assigned to an investigator to determine if there is a statutory basis for a criminal nuisance complaint... + Drug trafficking and consumption of drugs + Prostitution (manifesting, promotion and compelling) + Illegal gambling (promotion and communicating) + Criminal gang activity (combination and/or street gang) + Random gunfire + Commercial obscenity (manufacture, distribution, exhibition) + Commercial dancing (sexually explicit) + Bull fighting PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  Criminal nuisance cases are identified through... + Complaints + Referrals + Reviews of special use and zoning permit requests  Case is assigned to an investigator to determine if there is a statutory basis for a criminal nuisance complaint... + Drug trafficking and consumption of drugs + Prostitution (manifesting, promotion and compelling) + Illegal gambling (promotion and communicating) + Criminal gang activity (combination and/or street gang) + Random gunfire + Commercial obscenity (manufacture, distribution, exhibition) + Commercial dancing (sexually explicit) + Bull fighting

20 Dallas’ SAFE Team PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  If the complaint meets requirements, owner meets at the SAFE Team’s officer hearing room for a formal notification (videotaped)  Owner can sign an accord to make reparations or changes + If so, the property is monitored by the SAFE Team  If owners don’t comply, SAFE Team will take next appropriate steps + Give extension + File criminal charges + Seek property forfeiture PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  If the complaint meets requirements, owner meets at the SAFE Team’s officer hearing room for a formal notification (videotaped)  Owner can sign an accord to make reparations or changes + If so, the property is monitored by the SAFE Team  If owners don’t comply, SAFE Team will take next appropriate steps + Give extension + File criminal charges + Seek property forfeiture

21 Dallas’ SAFE Team CRITICAL FACTORS  Explicit policy-related guidelines must be developed to meet abatement standards of both criminal and civil law.  Some level of autonomy is needed for the SAFE Team because of the legal and operational characteristics of abatement.  Selective enforcement of nuisance and related code enforcement violations is neither operationally nor politically viable—a “zero tolerance” policy is strongly recommended. CRITICAL FACTORS  Explicit policy-related guidelines must be developed to meet abatement standards of both criminal and civil law.  Some level of autonomy is needed for the SAFE Team because of the legal and operational characteristics of abatement.  Selective enforcement of nuisance and related code enforcement violations is neither operationally nor politically viable—a “zero tolerance” policy is strongly recommended.

22 Dallas’ SAFE Team CRITICAL FACTORS  Because the processes deals with seizure and control of property and the SAFE Team has a degree of autonomy, a series of checks and balances is needed to ensure accountability and control.  While it may not be feasible for every agency, the Dallas SAFE Team has found that an invaluable tool is having in-house attorneys whose responsibilities are exclusively dedicated to the SAFE Team.  SAFE Team administrators must be contemporary managers with a team orientation. CRITICAL FACTORS  Because the processes deals with seizure and control of property and the SAFE Team has a degree of autonomy, a series of checks and balances is needed to ensure accountability and control.  While it may not be feasible for every agency, the Dallas SAFE Team has found that an invaluable tool is having in-house attorneys whose responsibilities are exclusively dedicated to the SAFE Team.  SAFE Team administrators must be contemporary managers with a team orientation.

23 Dallas’ SAFE Team PROGRAM EFFECTS  Crime has gone down  Quality of life has increased  The Team’s activities, which physically change problem environments, coupled with the large number of cases the Team has handled in a comparatively short amount of time equates to a substantial impact on crime and disorder. PROGRAM EFFECTS  Crime has gone down  Quality of life has increased  The Team’s activities, which physically change problem environments, coupled with the large number of cases the Team has handled in a comparatively short amount of time equates to a substantial impact on crime and disorder.

24 Beaumont’s Housing Unit SITE DESCRIPTION  120,000 Documented Resident Population  75 Square Miles  265 Sworn Officers  85 Non-sworn SITE DESCRIPTION  120,000 Documented Resident Population  75 Square Miles  265 Sworn Officers  85 Non-sworn ORGANIZATION  Supervised by a Lieutenant and Sergeant  Unit is in Patrol Division  Eight officers assigned permanently to seven housing complexes  Officers may “flex” their hours ORGANIZATION  Supervised by a Lieutenant and Sergeant  Unit is in Patrol Division  Eight officers assigned permanently to seven housing complexes  Officers may “flex” their hours

25 Beaumont’s Housing Unit PURPOSE In 1994 the presence of gangs and growing violent crime in Beaumont’s Public Housing complexes was a signal that some police initiative was needed to deal with the problem. With aid from a Federal grant, eight police officers were assigned to the newly created Public Housing Unit. The unit’s goal was defined as “improving the quality of life for the residents through proactive law enforcement, public awareness and education.” PURPOSE In 1994 the presence of gangs and growing violent crime in Beaumont’s Public Housing complexes was a signal that some police initiative was needed to deal with the problem. With aid from a Federal grant, eight police officers were assigned to the newly created Public Housing Unit. The unit’s goal was defined as “improving the quality of life for the residents through proactive law enforcement, public awareness and education.”

26 Beaumont’s Housing Unit PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  Officers permanently assigned to housing units  Responsible for responding to calls and problem solving  Officers investigate the crimes in the units rather than have them assigned to Detectives  Essentially, the housing officer also becomes the coordinator for all police services in the complex PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  Officers permanently assigned to housing units  Responsible for responding to calls and problem solving  Officers investigate the crimes in the units rather than have them assigned to Detectives  Essentially, the housing officer also becomes the coordinator for all police services in the complex

27 Beaumont’s Housing Unit CRITICAL FACTORS  The public housing complexes were fully assessed to determine the crime and disorder problems. Assessments included… + Reported crime rates and types + Analysis of calls received at each complex + An examination of the physical environment of the housing complex and contiguous areas  Goals were clearly established: Reduce violent crime, reduce calls for service, increase citizen-police communication to aid in control of crime and disorder, develop the best possible living atmosphere for residents CRITICAL FACTORS  The public housing complexes were fully assessed to determine the crime and disorder problems. Assessments included… + Reported crime rates and types + Analysis of calls received at each complex + An examination of the physical environment of the housing complex and contiguous areas  Goals were clearly established: Reduce violent crime, reduce calls for service, increase citizen-police communication to aid in control of crime and disorder, develop the best possible living atmosphere for residents

28 Beaumont’s Housing Unit CRITICAL FACTORS  Commitment by police management to the unit  Officers were given: + Empowerment to take actions and make decisions + Flexibility in hours and approaches  Permanent assignments to a housing complex  A youth-oriented approach  Dedicated officers are critical to success--personnel must be self-starters who work well with minimal supervision, who are creative, people-oriented, and willing to take the extra effort in their work CRITICAL FACTORS  Commitment by police management to the unit  Officers were given: + Empowerment to take actions and make decisions + Flexibility in hours and approaches  Permanent assignments to a housing complex  A youth-oriented approach  Dedicated officers are critical to success--personnel must be self-starters who work well with minimal supervision, who are creative, people-oriented, and willing to take the extra effort in their work

29 Beaumont’s Housing Unit CRITICAL FACTORS  Regular communications and cooperation between: + Housing Unit officers and both patrol officers and detectives. + Officers assigned at each of the housing complexes. + Officer and apartment managers + Officers and other city departments  Officers must be both tough on crime and providing assistance on quality of life issues  Important tools for the housing officers also include: + Criminal trespass warnings and enforcement + Curfew enforcement (day and night) CRITICAL FACTORS  Regular communications and cooperation between: + Housing Unit officers and both patrol officers and detectives. + Officers assigned at each of the housing complexes. + Officer and apartment managers + Officers and other city departments  Officers must be both tough on crime and providing assistance on quality of life issues  Important tools for the housing officers also include: + Criminal trespass warnings and enforcement + Curfew enforcement (day and night)

30 Beaumont’s Housing Unit PROGRAM EFFECTS  In the 6 months prior to the Housing Unit, there were 1,550 offense calls in the seven apartment complexes ranging from homicide to disorderly conduct  After the first six months of the Unit’s operation, crime calls dropped by 13%  Enforcement of trespass laws has been critical  Awareness calls have increased--defined to include a wide range of things including suspect sightings, information on crime, nuisance calls, gambling, prowlers, and calls for general assistance  Quality of life has increased for residents PROGRAM EFFECTS  In the 6 months prior to the Housing Unit, there were 1,550 offense calls in the seven apartment complexes ranging from homicide to disorderly conduct  After the first six months of the Unit’s operation, crime calls dropped by 13%  Enforcement of trespass laws has been critical  Awareness calls have increased--defined to include a wide range of things including suspect sightings, information on crime, nuisance calls, gambling, prowlers, and calls for general assistance  Quality of life has increased for residents

31 Waco’s Neighborhood Services Section SITE DESCRIPTION  104,000 Documented Resident Population  93 Square Miles  221 Sworn Officers  72 Non-sworn SITE DESCRIPTION  104,000 Documented Resident Population  93 Square Miles  221 Sworn Officers  72 Non-sworn ORGANIZATION  The Neighborhood Services Section is in the Patrol Division  Section includes... + Bicycle officers + Housing officers + Neighborhood Service Officers + Investigators + Community Oriented Policing Officer ORGANIZATION  The Neighborhood Services Section is in the Patrol Division  Section includes... + Bicycle officers + Housing officers + Neighborhood Service Officers + Investigators + Community Oriented Policing Officer

32 Waco’s Neighborhood Services Section PURPOSE To use an integrated approach of Investigators, Neighborhood Oriented Police officers, bicycle officers, Citizens on Patrol, and Neighborhood Associations to address crimes and quality of life problems within defined Waco communities. PURPOSE To use an integrated approach of Investigators, Neighborhood Oriented Police officers, bicycle officers, Citizens on Patrol, and Neighborhood Associations to address crimes and quality of life problems within defined Waco communities.

33 Waco’s Neighborhood Services Section PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  Officers work cooperatively in a team approach both only responding to complaints and proactively identifying problems  Officers are assigned to 24 different neighborhoods  Investigators assigned to districts overlapping neighborhoods  Partnerships are emphasized--police personnel interact with... + Neighborhood Associations + Citizens on Patrol PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  Officers work cooperatively in a team approach both only responding to complaints and proactively identifying problems  Officers are assigned to 24 different neighborhoods  Investigators assigned to districts overlapping neighborhoods  Partnerships are emphasized--police personnel interact with... + Neighborhood Associations + Citizens on Patrol

34 Waco’s Neighborhood Services Section PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  Crime control efforts in the neighborhoods rely on… + Offender targeting + Identification of crime hot spots + Crime prediction model  Concept is largely one of “holistic policing” in the neighborhoods PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  Crime control efforts in the neighborhoods rely on… + Offender targeting + Identification of crime hot spots + Crime prediction model  Concept is largely one of “holistic policing” in the neighborhoods

35 Waco’s Neighborhood Services Section CRITICAL FACTORS  Commitment by the administration to experiment with an alternate organizational structure.  Along with commitment, must be flexibility to permit non-traditional approaches to deployment and service delivery. A team management approach appears to be most effective. This includes… + A flat organizational structure + Team (rather than individual) goals + Sufficient autonomy to make resource deployment decisions CRITICAL FACTORS  Commitment by the administration to experiment with an alternate organizational structure.  Along with commitment, must be flexibility to permit non-traditional approaches to deployment and service delivery.  A team management approach appears to be most effective. This includes… + A flat organizational structure + Team (rather than individual) goals + Sufficient autonomy to make resource deployment decisions

36 Waco’s Neighborhood Services Section CRITICAL FACTORS  Crime and quality of life problems tend to be characterized by neighborhoods, thus geographic  Use both proactive and reactive policing.  Targeting and analysis of offenders, crimes and community problems.  Developing trust and communications is essential.  There will be internal resistance to this change. + Supervisors and managers are more difficult to change than patrol officers. CRITICAL FACTORS  Crime and quality of life problems tend to be characterized by neighborhoods, thus geographic  Use both proactive and reactive policing.  Targeting and analysis of offenders, crimes and community problems.  Developing trust and communications is essential.  There will be internal resistance to this change. + Supervisors and managers are more difficult to change than patrol officers.

37 Waco’s Neighborhood Services Section PROGRAM EFFECTS  Crime has had an overall drop of 54% in one year.  Arrests have increased dramatically; mostly adult offenders--these are the product of… + Greater offender targeting + Neighborhood team assignment of investigators + More information provided by the community  There are visible signs of a notably increased quality of life in the neighborhoods. PROGRAM EFFECTS  Crime has had an overall drop of 54% in one year.  Arrests have increased dramatically; mostly adult offenders--these are the product of… + Greater offender targeting + Neighborhood team assignment of investigators + More information provided by the community  There are visible signs of a notably increased quality of life in the neighborhoods.

38 Waco’s Neighborhood Services Section PROGRAM EFFECTS  The number of criminal nuisance abatement cases brought to trial by the police department have increased significantly.  Officers working in the neighborhood Services Section have had a significant increase in job satisfaction. This increase is attributed to… + Officers are seeing positive results of their work + Officers are receiving positive feedback from the community; a feeling of appreciation + Working in productive teams provides a more desirable working environment. PROGRAM EFFECTS  The number of criminal nuisance abatement cases brought to trial by the police department have increased significantly.  Officers working in the neighborhood Services Section have had a significant increase in job satisfaction. This increase is attributed to… + Officers are seeing positive results of their work + Officers are receiving positive feedback from the community; a feeling of appreciation + Working in productive teams provides a more desirable working environment.

39 Arlington’s Geographic Policing Model SITE DESCRIPTION  291,600 Documented Resident Population  123 Square Miles  478 Sworn Officers  148 Non-sworn SITE DESCRIPTION  291,600 Documented Resident Population  123 Square Miles  478 Sworn Officers  148 Non-sworn ORGANIZATION  City has 3 patrol sectors in transition to being geographically-based  Rank of Captain eliminated  Lieutenant’s have a 24 hour responsibility for a geographic area  Sergeants coordinate responses in patrol beats (about 10,000 residents) ORGANIZATION  City has 3 patrol sectors in transition to being geographically-based  Rank of Captain eliminated  Lieutenant’s have a 24 hour responsibility for a geographic area  Sergeants coordinate responses in patrol beats (about 10,000 residents)

40 Arlington’s Geographic Policing Model PURPOSE Relying on geographic distribution of personnel; team management; empowerment of line, supervisory, and management personnel; and generalization of some detective assignments, the APD is implementing a deployment system intended to be more responsive to neighborhood problems. PURPOSE Relying on geographic distribution of personnel; team management; empowerment of line, supervisory, and management personnel; and generalization of some detective assignments, the APD is implementing a deployment system intended to be more responsive to neighborhood problems.

41 Arlington’s Geographic Policing Model PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  The department was ready to take “the next step” in community policing--but unsure what that was  After research and discussion, three elements emerged as part of the new program + Organize the department on a geographic basis + Re-think the police services and citizen needs were fulfilled + Change the management structure to facilitate these  Lieutenants, not a shift commander, but have a24- hour responsibility for a defined geographic area  They are responsible for monitoring crime/police response issues; coordinating all police activities PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  The department was ready to take “the next step” in community policing--but unsure what that was  After research and discussion, three elements emerged as part of the new program + Organize the department on a geographic basis + Re-think the police services and citizen needs were fulfilled + Change the management structure to facilitate these  Lieutenants, not a shift commander, but have a 24- hour responsibility for a defined geographic area  They are responsible for monitoring crime/police response issues; coordinating all police activities

42 Arlington’s Geographic Policing Model PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  Sergeants became team leaders, responsible for coordinating a comprehensive police response in the area  Work 10 hour shifts, overlapping to enhance communications and provide time for coordinating  Sergeants are coaches and team leaders, making their roles more strategic and proactive  Detectives also work on a geographic basis  Performance evaluation system revised  Essentially a mini-police department for the beats PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  Sergeants became team leaders, responsible for coordinating a comprehensive police response in the area  Work 10 hour shifts, overlapping to enhance communications and provide time for coordinating  Sergeants are coaches and team leaders, making their roles more strategic and proactive  Detectives also work on a geographic basis  Performance evaluation system revised  Essentially a mini-police department for the beats

43 Arlington’s Geographic Policing Model CRITICAL FACTORS  Administrators must make a commitment to the program in both words and actions.  Because of the comparatively “radical” nature of this program, changes must be made slowly in order for personnel to accept them.  Change must be made as painless as possible.  Patrol officers must be given narrow objectives to accomplish at first in order for them to see some “wins” and adjust to the new system. CRITICAL FACTORS  Administrators must make a commitment to the program in both words and actions.  Because of the comparatively “radical” nature of this program, changes must be made slowly in order for personnel to accept them.  Change must be made as painless as possible.  Patrol officers must be given narrow objectives to accomplish at first in order for them to see some “wins” and adjust to the new system.

44 Arlington’s Geographic Policing Model CRITICAL FACTORS  Officers must be empowered to make decisions about handling calls, prioritizing problems, and developing innovations.  Personnel at all levels of the organization must be involved in the change process.  Any changes must be contemporary and useful; not cosmetic.  The focus must not be solely on crime but also on fear of crime and disorder.  Administrators, managers, and supervisors must listen to criticisms and make adjustments. CRITICAL FACTORS  Officers must be empowered to make decisions about handling calls, prioritizing problems, and developing innovations.  Personnel at all levels of the organization must be involved in the change process.  Any changes must be contemporary and useful; not cosmetic.  The focus must not be solely on crime but also on fear of crime and disorder.  Administrators, managers, and supervisors must listen to criticisms and make adjustments.

45 Arlington’s Geographic Policing Model PROGRAM EFFECTS  Crime has reduced in all categories.  Citizens’ quality of life has increased.  The ability to manage critical calls for service has increased  Job satisfaction among personnel has increased.  Internal communications has increased.  Communications between the police and the public has increased.  It appears that the geographic-based model has been more cost-effective. PROGRAM EFFECTS  Crime has reduced in all categories.  Citizens’ quality of life has increased.  The ability to manage critical calls for service has increased  Job satisfaction among personnel has increased.  Internal communications has increased.  Communications between the police and the public has increased.  It appears that the geographic-based model has been more cost-effective.

46 Neighborhood-Centered Programs Implications Police departments must look to their communities to determine needs--for example...  Call and crime analysis  Community surveys  Input from officers Police departments must look to their communities to determine needs--for example...  Call and crime analysis  Community surveys  Input from officers l The department must be willing to take some risks--“color outside the lines” l Examine alternate management, deployment, and leadership methods l Determine what changes police personnel will accept l Determine what changes the community will accept l New programming can be effectively implemented

47 Neighborhood-Centered Approaches DISCUSSION David L. Carter Michigan State University


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