Next Generation Wildlife/Common Core Standards Addressed! HS ‐ LS2 ‐ 6. Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Examples of changes in ecosystem conditions could include modest biological or physical changes, such as moderate hunting or a seasonal flood; and extreme changes, such as volcanic eruption or sea level rise. HS ‐ LS2 ‐ 7. Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to, survive and reproduce. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on: (1) distinguishing between group and individual behavior, (2) identifying evidence supporting the outcomes of group behavior, and (3) developing logical and reasonable arguments based on evidence. Examples of group behaviors could include flocking, schooling, herding, and cooperative behaviors such as hunting, migrating, and swarming.
Bell Work/Learning Objectives Describe human health problems associated with wildlife. Explain other problems related to wildlife. Identify laws related to wildlife control.
Can big problems come in small packages? Take a look at pictures of mosquitos and black-legged ticks. Take a look at pictures of vehicle, crop and other property damages caused by wildlife. Discuss this problems.
Crop Depredation by Livestock! Wildlife depredation creates millions of dollars of loss for American Agriculture producers. In eastern and central portions of the country White Tailed Deer are the major problem for producers. In western regions of the country Mule Deer, Elk and Pronghorn Antelope all contribute to crop loss. The range of the coyote has expanded to all parts of the country. Coyotes prey upon domestic livestock. Sheep and goats are especially susceptible to predation by coyotes. Western states also experience predation form Mountain Lions and Wolves. The reintroduction of the wolf into New Mexico has been especially problematic for livestock producers in the western potion of our state.
What human health problems are associated with wildlife? Many diseases that cause illness and death in humans are carried and transmitted by wildlife. Some diseases are carried by animals but cause no symptoms. Zoonosis are diseases transmissible from animals to man. There are over 200 such diseases.
What human health problems are associated with wildlife? Lyme disease Caused by bacteria and is transmitted by different species of black legged ticks. The highest risk area for this disease is along the Mid Atlantic and northern U.S. Wear protective clothing when outside. Cover all exposed skin. Lyme disease is not common to NM but has been reported on occasion.
What human health problems are associated with wildlife? West Nile Virus Caused by mosquito bites Affects people, horses, and birds most commonly. Symptoms include low-grade fever, rash or death. WNV was first diagnosed in the U.S. in 1999. WNV has been increasing in New Mexico each year. All ages are susceptible but the young and especially are impacted by the disease.
What human health problems are associated with wildlife? Lyme Disease Mosquitoes feed on infected birds The infected mosquitoes then bite humans and animals. Even if bitten by an infected mosquito, you have less than a 1% chance of infection.
What human health problems are associated with wildlife? Bubonic Plague A disease that is transmitted by fleas that are infected by their host rodent. Symptoms include swollen and very tender lymph gland, accompanied by pain, fever, chills, and headache. The average occurrence has been 10-20 cases per year. Most of the plague occurrences that occur take place in New Mexico. Most cases are found in northern NM especially in the four corners area.
What human health problems are associated with wildlife? Rabies Transmitted by contact with the saliva of an infected animal (bite or scratch). Although humans can get rabies from wild animals, the most common way to get it is from infected domestic dogs.
What other problems are related to wildlife? Bats Use high frequency sound waves to navigate and find food. They are nocturnal Something that sleeps during the day and is active at night. They scratch and crawl through attics and walls damaging the walls and leaving droppings behind.
What other problems are related to wildlife? Deer and smaller mammals consume tree seedlings and other crops. Birds can decimate grain and sunflower fields. Predators attack livestock and other domestic animals.
What other problems are related to wildlife? Economic Problems In 1999, sheep and goat producers lost an estimated $19.9 million due to predation. In 2000, cattle producers’ losses to predators were worth $51.6 million. Wildlife damages to U.S. agriculture was estimated at $944 million during 2001. Corn alone accounts for more than $90 million annually in crop damages from wildlife.
What other problems are related to wildlife? Overall bird populations cause an estimated annual lose to U.S. agriculture of $100 million. Sunflower and rice crops are a favorite of blackbirds, leading to $4 to 11 million worth of losses annually. Apples, blueberries and grapes have been estimated at more than $40 million in damages.
What other problems are related to wildlife? During one year in Pennsylvania, white tailed deer cause crop losses totaling $30 million. An estimated $100 million in damage each year to private and public property is due to beavers. Mississippi catfish farmers lose nearly $6 million worth of fingerlings to fish eating birds.
What Can Be Done about nuisance wildlife Livestock producers and home owners may contact the New Mexico Game and Fish Department for assistance with nuisance wildlife. The Game and Fish dept. provides assistance with fencing, trapping and relocation of nuisance wildlife. The state and federal government have trappers available for the capture, transplanting and disposal of dangerous predators. Assistance is also available for controlling large numbers of rodents such as prairie dogs.