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Research and Technical Review of Clearcast ™ for Chinese Tallow Tree (Triadica sebifera) Control Todd Horton SePRO Corporation Jack Whetstone Clemson University.

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Presentation on theme: "Research and Technical Review of Clearcast ™ for Chinese Tallow Tree (Triadica sebifera) Control Todd Horton SePRO Corporation Jack Whetstone Clemson University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Research and Technical Review of Clearcast ™ for Chinese Tallow Tree (Triadica sebifera) Control Todd Horton SePRO Corporation Jack Whetstone Clemson University

2 Clearcast was evaluated under an Experimental Use Permit (EUP) from – Included multiple university trials – Operational applications – Demonstration plots Trials focused on submerged aquatic plants and wetland invasive and nuisance species Federal registration (section 3 label) approved in March 2008 – State registrations followed Clearcast research and EUP results

3 Highly invasive woody plant found in coastal states from North Carolina to Texas Selective control in hardwoods is difficult Requires individual plant treatment Chinese tallow tree control

4 Initial discovery , Houma, LA: Clearcast at 0.5% was applied to mixed brush and hardwood species using a handgun delivering 50 gpa – Broadcast rate equivalent to 32 oz/A (0.25 lb ai/A) – Included 1% methylated seed oil (MSO) Although limited woody plant activity was anticipated, a single Chinese tallow tree was highly affected Other desirable woody plants, including water oak, were not injured

5 Tallow tree and water oak at application

6 Initial symptoms on tallow June 26, 2006 (10 weeks after treatment)

7 Clearcast at 0.5% –MSO at 1% 25 days after treatment Treated cattail and red maple Other trials indicated hardwood selectivity

8 Clearcast at 0.5% –MSO at 1% 63 days after treatment Cattail was controlled and red maple had minimal injury These findings led to further studies Other trials indicated hardwood selectivity

9 Tallow tree / Hardwood screening research and demonstration LSU (Dearl Sanders) conducted a trial on sapling bald cypress (2006) – Additional hardwood selectivity trial ongoing (2008) Numerous EUP applications in LA to further compile information on selectivity and control – Lafayette, Hayes, Montgomery, Shreveport, Cade Aerial application trial with Clearcast in southeast Texas – Cooperators include NRCS, BASF, ChemAir Aerial application trial with Clearcast in South Carolina – Cooperators included TNC, SC DNR, Clemson University, BASF

10 Cypress Screening (LSU Sanders) Clearcast rate (oz/A)

11 LSU Study: Sapling cypress leaf browning Clearcast (oz/A) (%) browning (non-treated)

12 Typical use rates necessary for Chinese tallow tree control (32-64 oz/A) did not result in bald cypress mortality –Saplings would likely have the greatest susceptibility to herbicide injury Some leaf burning and browning was observed on saplings Symptoms peaked at 83 days after treatment, then subsided Additional field trials with Clearcast have documented bald cypress selectivity/safety –Tested a wide range of size and age of cypress LSU Study: Sapling cypress leaf browning

13 Tallow tree / Hardwood screening Lafayette, LA Clearcast at 0.5% + 1% MSO - Handgun app. 45 days after treatment Control of Chinese tallow tree in sensitive sites

14 Clearcast at 64 oz/A + 32 oz /A MSO - Handgun app. 6 Months after treatment Selective control of Chinese tallow tree in ditches and drainages Tallow tree / Hardwood screening Lafayette, LA

15 Symptoms from Clearcast on Chinese tallow tree (6 Months after treatment) Clearcast 64 oz/A (note cambium death) Untreated Arsenal Powerline (terrestrial herbicide)

16 Clearcast at 0.5% (equivalent to 32 oz/A) + 1% crop oil - handgun Selective control of Chinese tallow tree in a wetland site with cypress, oak, and maple 10 Months after treatment Treated cypress tree (sprayed to wet) Tallow tree / Hardwood screening Hayes, LA

17 Clearcast at 0.5% (equivalent to 32 oz/A) + 1% crop oil Selective control of Chinese tallow tree growing amongst cypress 10 Months after treatment Treated both tallow and cypress trees Tallow tree / Hardwood screening Hayes, LA

18 Clearcast at 0.5% (equivalent to 32 oz/A) + 1% crop oil Tallow tree controlled Adjacent oaks not damaged Note: handgun reached only lower 1/3 to ½ of tree 10 Months after treatment Treated tallow tree Tallow tree / Hardwood screening Hayes, LA

19 Clearcast at 0.5% (equivalent to 32 oz/A) + 1% crop oil Tallow tree growing under and amongst cypress and maple Willows were controlled or severely injured 10 Months after treatment Treated tallow tree Cypress tree maple Tallow tree / Hardwood screening Hayes, LA

20 Aerial (helicopter) trial in East Texas Wetland reserve program area near Liberty, TX 2, 5-acre sites applied via helicopter at 15 gpa Site 1: Clearcast at 48 oz/A + MSO at 32 oz/A –Contained a 9-year old planting of (10-20’) bald cypress, nutall oak, willow oak, and water oak –Moderate infestation of Chinese tallow tree Site 2: Clearcast at 64 oz/A + MSO at 32 oz/A –Uneven aged stand of mixed hardwoods with a moderate to severe infestation of tallow trees from 10’ in the understory up to 50’ in the canopy –Canopy of 50-80’ hardwoods (oak, maple, elm, ash)

21 Aerial Clearcast results in Liberty, TX (site 1) Clearcast at 48 oz/A Excellent selectivity on oak and cypress –Some leaf yellowing noticed on willow oak –Leaf burn noticed during application year on cypress –Full recovery 10 MAT Control of tallow estimated at 90% 10 MAT with additional mortality anticipated

22 Aerial Clearcast results in Liberty, TX (site 1, 48 oz/A) tallow tree willow and water oak Clearcast at 48 oz/A Excellent selectivity on oak and cypress Controlled estimated at 90% 10 months after treatment with additional mortality anticipated

23 Aerial Clearcast results in Liberty, TX (site 1, 48 oz/A) tallow tree nutall oak

24 Clearcast at 48 oz/A Other hardwoods with minimal impact included sweetgum, red maple, green ash, and wax myrtle Minimal impact on herbaceous species 10 MAT Injury noted on hawthorn and Baccharis Aerial Clearcast results in Liberty, TX (site 1)

25 Clearcast at 64 oz/A Excellent hardwood safety 10 months after treatment: Control of tallow estimated at 75-85% for plants that ranged from 10-50’ tall and received some coverage Limited coverage and shadowing affected control in the understory Aerial Clearcast results in Liberty, TX (site 2)

26 Aerial Clearcast results in Liberty, TX (site 2, 64 oz/A)

27

28 48 oz Imazapyr 64 oz Imazapyr 96 oz Glyphosate

29 June 2006, helicopter application at 10 gpa Treated with Clearcast at 64 oz/A + 1% MSO –Site had a mixed stand of hardwoods and Chinese tallow tree –Also targeted phragmites Aerial (helicopter) trial in South Carolina

30 Selective Tallow and Phragmites (1 year after treatment)

31 Clearcast – Chinese Tallow 32 Oz. Clearcast + 1% MSO in 15 Gallons 32 Oz. Clearcast + 1% MSO in 15 Gallons 10 August August DAT 11 DAT

32 32-64 oz/A Clearcast has controlled Chinese tallow tree in numerous trials and demonstration plots – Higher rates are necessary for severe infestations and mature stands – Lower rates may suffice for small tallow trees and will provide greater safety for small hardwoods – Similar results have been observed with ground/handgun applications and aerial helicopter applications – Application method and volume should provide adequate foliar coverage of crown and terminal shoots GPA aerial 50 GPA handgun GPA broadcast ground MSO at 1% or 32 oz/A used in all trials to date Summary of research on brush and tallow tree control

33 Majority of established hardwoods (>2” dbh) in these trials have exhibited very good tolerance to Clearcast at oz/A – Oak (live, nutall, water, willow)– Sugarberry – Bald cypress– Southern Red Cedar – Red maple– Groundsel-tree (Baccharis) – Hickory– Elm – Red Mulberry – Hackberry – Wax Myrtle– Green ash – Pecan – Loblolly Pine Injury is possible on stressed plants and smaller trees Willow, black cherry, hawthorn, sweetgum and sumac are among the sensitive/susceptible woody species Sweetgum may be controlled at higher volumes, smaller trees Summary of research on brush and tallow tree control

34 Clearcast has a full aquatic label with no fishing, swimming, or livestock watering restrictions – Label also allows for applications in noncropland and riparian areas The active ingredient in Clearcast received an exemption from tolerance designation from the US EPA – Thus, Clearcast has limited irrigation restrictions (50 ppb) and… – University trials have illustrated safety to turf, corn, cotton and rice at rates below 50 ppb Additional Information

35 Clearcast also has activity on a wide range of nuisance and invasive aquatic weeds including: – Alligatorweed– Common salvinia – Pennywort – Frogsbit – Phragmites– Cattail – Water lettuce– Water hyacinth – Pondweeds Additional Information

36 Dearl Sanders, LSU Barton Joffrion, Terra Bonne Extension Mitch Samaha, LDWF Tom Smith, USDA-NRCS Jack Whetstone, Clemson Red River, Chemair C3M, Summit Helicopters Acknowledgements

37 SePRO Contact Information For tallow control and other pond management problems Todd Horton


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