Presentation on theme: "Community Policing Implementation Models David L. Carter Michigan State University NOTE: The original research and funding for development of the material."— Presentation transcript:
Community Policing Implementation Models David L. Carter Michigan State University NOTE: The original research and funding for development of the material contained herein was provided by the Police Research Center, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX, Dr. Larry Hoover, Director; and the Texas Law Enforcement Management Institute. The information in this presentation was prepared for the WSU Regional Community Policing Institute, by David L. Carter, Ph.D., National Center for Community Policing, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI The information may be reproduced with attribution to both the WSU RCPI and the author.
Neighborhood Oriented Programs
Fundamentals Neighborhood Oriented Programs PREDOMINANT POLICING PROBLEMS Disorder Public Nuisance Burglary CHARACTER OF THE PROBLEMS Represent a large number of calls for service Represents a disproportionately large source of… + Heightened fear of crime + General citizen complaints + Lower quality of life
INTENT OF CRIME-SPECIFIC POLICE RESPONSES Arrest offenders Influence citizens to report crimes/problems Use citizens as information/intelligence resource Motivate citizens as partners to help monitor and resolve problems GENERAL OBSERVATIONS Greatest obstacle: Keeping citizens involved Key strategy: Blend community partnering with tactical policing Fundamentals Neighborhood Oriented Programs
KEY FACTORS Communications between neighborhood residents and police must increase Communications between residents must increase Residents must have a sense of ownership for the entire neighborhood, not just their property Problems must be addressed on a neighborhood basis, not on artificial boundaries Police must recognize that problems which may seem minor are serious to residents Fundamentals Neighborhood Oriented Programs
Corsicana, Texas Turn Around Texas SITE DESCRIPTION 28,000 Documented Resident Population 14 Square Miles 45 Sworn Officers 12 Non-sworn ORGANIZATION OF TURN AROUND TEXAS A community-based organization Supported by the police department Police provide security and general assistance
PURPOSE To provide “a targeted confrontation, mobilization and education process” led by citizens in conjunction with and support from the police department intended to intimidate drug dealers and drug buyers to stop displace drug transactions. Corsicana, Texas Turn Around Texas
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Police department identifies drug targets Citizens go through a training program Police provide transportation and security to marchers Marchers stand in front of target’s house and chant with intent to intimidate Marchers sometimes paint “crack house” with arrow on street Citizen involvement and weekly marches are necessary Corsicana, Texas Turn Around Texas
CRITICAL FACTORS A commitment by police administration to the program, including a willingness to participate, devote resources, take risks, and permit flexibility for officers to participate. Officers must be present at all marches for safety, security, and support. Officers working with Turn Around Texas must have flexibility. Corsicana, Texas Turn Around Texas
PROGRAM EFFECTS Virtual elimination of open air drug markets after about one year. A large number of drug dealers have been displaced outside of Corsicana’s city limits. Some reduction in violent crime. Very positive support for the police from the community (including political support.) The police department has received increased information about drug distribution from neighborhood sources who were previously reluctant to talk with the police. Corsicana, Texas Turn Around Texas
Garland, Texas Apartment Managers Group SITE DESCRIPTION 200,000 Resident Population 57 Square Miles 287 Sworn Officers 119 Non-sworn ORGANIZATION The AMG is the responsibility of the day shift Patrol Lieutenant
Garland, Texas Apartment Managers Group PURPOSE The Apartment Managers Group (AMG) was formed in 1992 to serve as a problem identification, communications, and resource tool to reduce crime problems in apartment complexes.
Garland, Texas Apartment Managers Group PROGRAM DESCRIPTION All managers of apartment complexes are welcome to join Monthly meetings are held at the police department + Give AMG members crime analysis data + Discuss crime issues, problems and trends + Guest speaker at each meeting Monthly newsletter for AMG published by the police department Police department has a dedicated telephone “hot line” with voice mail for AMG members
Garland, Texas Apartment Managers Group CRITICAL FACTORS Having meetings on a regular basis, regardless of the number of people who attend. Providing information which is of practical use to the managers at the meeting, even if it falls outside of the law enforcement purview, per se. Holding monthly AMG meetings at the police department; provides reinforcement that the police are concerned and involved in problems faced by the apartment managers.
Garland, Texas Apartment Managers Group CRITICAL FACTORS Regular contact with the police has increased the quality of the relationship with apartment managers--particularly evident through NPOs Having constant and open avenues of communications between the AMG members and the police department Providing information on crime and calls for service to apartment managers. Help the apartment managers to see the need to communicate with and cooperate with the police.
Garland, Texas Apartment Managers Group PROGRAM EFFECTS Crime reduction has been recorded in... + Auto burglary + Residential burglary + Drug trafficking in apartment complexes Most recently, auto theft has increased and a strategy is being developed to address this problem While not specifically directed toward quality of life issues, they have nonetheless improved. Some reduction in calls for service, most likely as a result of eviction or displacement of problem residents.
Dallas, Texas SAFE Team SITE DESCRIPTION 1,100,000 Documented Resident Population 462 Square Miles 2,886 Sworn Officers 700 Non-sworn SAFE = Support, Abatement, Forfeiture, Enforcement ORGANIZATION SAFE Team is in the Investigations Bureau, Special Operations Division Commanded by a Lieutenant who reports to an Assistant Chief 19 sworn officers 7 civilians (includes attorneys and code enforcement)
Dallas, Texas SAFE Team PURPOSE To reclaim, restore, and revitalize Dallas neighborhoods adversely affected by crime through the use of criminal abatement statutes, code enforcement, and civil and criminal processes.
Dallas, Texas SAFE Team PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Criminal nuisance cases are identified through... + Complaints + Referrals + Reviews of special use and zoning permit requests
Dallas, Texas SAFE Team PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Case is assigned to an investigator to determine if there is a statutory basis for a criminal nuisance complaint... + Drug trafficking and consumption of drugs + Prostitution (manifesting, promotion and compelling) + Illegal gambling (promotion and communicating) + Criminal gang activity (combination and/or street gang) + Random gunfire + Commercial obscenity (manufacture, distribution, exhibition) + Commercial dancing (sexually explicit) + Bull fighting
Dallas, Texas SAFE Team PROGRAM DESCRIPTION If the complaint meets requirements, owner meets at the SAFE Team’s officer hearing room for a formal notification (videotaped) Owner can sign an accord to make reparations or changes + If so, the property is monitored by the SAFE Team If owners don’t comply, SAFE Team will take next appropriate steps + Give extension + File criminal charges + Seek property forfeiture
Dallas, Texas SAFE Team CRITICAL FACTORS Explicit policy-related guidelines must be developed to meet abatement standards of both criminal and civil law. Some level of autonomy is needed for the SAFE Team because of the legal and operational characteristics of abatement. Selective enforcement of nuisance and related code enforcement violations is neither operationally nor politically viable—a “zero tolerance” policy is strongly recommended.
Dallas, Texas SAFE Team CRITICAL FACTORS Because the processes deals with seizure and control of property and the SAFE Team has a degree of autonomy, a series of checks and balances is needed to ensure accountability and control. While it may not be feasible for every agency, the Dallas SAFE Team has found that an invaluable tool is having in-house attorneys whose responsibilities are exclusively dedicated to the SAFE Team. SAFE Team administrators must be contemporary managers with a team orientation.
Dallas, Texas SAFE Team PROGRAM EFFECTS Crime has gone down Quality of life has increased The Team’s activities, which physically change problem environments, coupled with the large number of cases the Team has handled in a comparatively short amount of time equates to a substantial impact on crime and disorder.
Beaumont, Texas Public Housing Unit SITE DESCRIPTION 120,000 Documented Resident Population 75 Square Miles 265 Sworn Officers 85 Non-sworn ORGANIZATION Supervised by a Lieutenant and Sergeant Unit is in Patrol Division Eight officers assigned permanently to seven housing complexes Officers may “flex” their hours
Beaumont, Texas Public Housing Unit PURPOSE In 1994 the presence of gangs and growing violent crime in Beaumont’s Public Housing complexes was a signal that some police initiative was needed to deal with the problem. With aid from a Federal grant, eight police officers were assigned to the newly created Public Housing Unit. The unit’s goal was defined as “improving the quality of life for the residents through proactive law enforcement, public awareness and education.”
Beaumont, Texas Public Housing Unit PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Officers permanently assigned to housing units Responsible for responding to calls and problem solving Officers investigate the crimes in the units rather than have them assigned to Detectives Essentially, the housing officer also becomes the coordinator for all police services in the complex
Beaumont, Texas Public Housing Unit CRITICAL FACTORS The public housing complexes were fully assessed to determine the crime and disorder problems. Assessments included… + Reported crime rates and types + Analysis of calls received at each complex + An examination of the physical environment of the housing complex and contiguous areas A youth-oriented approach
Beaumont, Texas Public Housing Unit CRITICAL FACTORS Goals clearly established… + Reduce violent crime + Reduce calls for service + Increase citizen-police communication to aid in control of crime and disorder + Develop the best possible living atmosphere for residents Officers must be both tough on crime and providing assistance on quality of life issues Commitment by police management to the unit
Beaumont, Texas Public Housing Unit CRITICAL FACTORS Officers were given: + Empowerment to take actions and make decisions + Flexibility in hours and approaches Permanent assignments to a housing complex Dedicated officers are critical to success--personnel must be self-starters who work well with minimal supervision, who are creative, people-oriented, and willing to take the extra effort in their work
Beaumont, Texas Public Housing Unit CRITICAL FACTORS Regular communications and cooperation between: + Housing Unit officers and both patrol officers and detectives. + Officers assigned at each of the housing complexes. + Officer and apartment managers + Officers and other city departments Important tools for the housing officers also include: + Criminal trespass warnings and enforcement + Curfew enforcement (day and night)
Beaumont, Texas Public Housing Unit PROGRAM EFFECTS In the 6 months prior to the Housing Unit, there were 1,550 offense calls in the 7 apartment complexes ranging from homicide to disorderly conduct After the first 6 months of the Unit’s operation, crime calls dropped by 13% Enforcement of trespass laws has been critical Awareness calls have increased--general information to the police to assist in problem solving Quality of life has increased for residents
Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section SITE DESCRIPTION 104,000 Documented Resident Population 93 Square Miles 221 Sworn Officers 72 Non-sworn ORGANIZATION The Neighborhood Services Section is in the Patrol Division Section includes... + Bicycle officers + Housing officers + Neighborhood Service Officers + Investigators + Community Oriented Policing Officer
PURPOSE To use an integrated approach of Investigators, Neighborhood Oriented Police officers, bicycle officers, Citizens on Patrol, and Neighborhood Associations to address crimes and quality of life problems within defined Waco communities. Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Officers work cooperatively in a team approach both only responding to complaints and proactively identifying problems Officers are assigned to 24 different neighborhoods Investigators assigned to districts overlapping neighborhoods Partnerships are emphasized--police personnel interact with... + Neighborhood Associations + Citizens on Patrol Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Crime control efforts in the neighborhoods rely on… + Offender targeting + Identification of crime hot spots + Crime prediction model Concept is largely one of “holistic policing” in the neighborhoods Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
CRITICAL FACTORS Commitment by the administration to experiment with an alternate organizational structure. Along with commitment, must be flexibility to permit non-traditional approaches to deployment and service delivery. A team management approach appears to be most effective. This includes… + A flat organizational structure + Team (rather than individual) goals + Sufficient autonomy to make resource deployment decisions Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
CRITICAL FACTORS Crime and quality of life problems tend to be characterized by neighborhoods, thus geographic deployment of personnel is most effective. Use both proactive and reactive policing. Targeting and analysis of offenders, crimes and community problems. Developing trust and communications is essential. There will be internal resistance to this change. + Supervisors and managers are more difficult to change than patrol officers. Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
PROGRAM EFFECTS Crime has had an overall drop of 54% in one year. Arrests have increased dramatically; mostly adult offenders--these are the product of… + Greater offender targeting + Neighborhood team assignment of investigators + More information provided by the community There are visible signs of a notably increased quality of life in the neighborhoods. Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
PROGRAM EFFECTS The number of criminal nuisance abatement cases brought to trial by the police department have increased significantly. Officers working in the neighborhood Services Section have had a significant increase in job satisfaction. This increase is attributed to… + Officers are seeing positive results of their work + Officers are receiving positive feedback from the community; a feeling of appreciation + Working in productive teams provides a more desirable working environment. Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
Police departments must look to their communities to determine needs--for example... Call and crime analysis Community surveys Input from officers The department must be willing to take some risks--“color outside the lines” Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
Examine alternate management, deployment, and leadership methods Determine what changes police personnel will accept Determine what changes the community will accept Recognize that new programming can be effectively implemented Waco, Texas Neighborhood Services Section
Youth and Gang Programs
Fundamentals Youth and Gang Programs PREDOMINANT POLICING PROBLEMS Gang membership and associated offenses (e.g., graffiti, assault, etc.) Theft Vandalism and nuisance offenses Drug, alcohol,and tobacco abuse CHARACTER OF THE PROBLEMS Gang problems appear to grow geometrically Problems represent underlying social decay Costly to repair/replace damages Lowers community’s quality of life
Fundamentals Youth and Gang Programs INTENT OF CRIME-SPECIFIC POLICE RESPONSES Identify and arrest offenders Suppress growth of endemic problems (notably gangs) Prevent future youth and gang problems to the extent possible GENERAL OBSERVATIONS Programs must be continuous Programs must be proactive, frequently non- traditional
Fundamentals Youth and Gang Programs KEY FACTORS Problem youth appear to have idle time which needs to be filled Peer pressure appears to be have more influence on many youth than parents and/or educators Many problem youth appear to lack a sense of belonging to a family or to a constructive social group
Victoria, Texas Gang Prevention Program SITE DESCRIPTION 63,000 Documented Resident Population 35 Square Miles 103 Sworn Officers 39 Non-sworn YOUTH OFFICERS Investigator Assigned to Public Housing 5 Officers Assigned to Schools + Sergeant at Alternative High School + 2 Officers at High School + 2 Officers at Junior High School
Victoria, Texas Gang Prevention Program PURPOSE Proactively use a variety of integrated approaches to suppress existing gang activity and prevent future gang involvement The program has eight integrated elements… Graffiti Education and Eradication Gang Education (community and schools) Adopt-A-Gang Retaliation Reaction Gang Grand Jury Personal Protection Classes Schools-Malls-Community Anti-Gang Programs Promotion of “Legitimate Large Gangs”
Victoria, Texas Gang Prevention Program CRITICAL FACTORS The most effective tools are… + Building a bond of trust with gang members + Communicating with gang members (and families) + “Showing respect” to the gang member PROGRAM EFFECTS Gang violence has decreased Gangs still exist, but they are less visible Gangs have taken on a “more social” character and are less involved in criminal enterprises
Mission, Texas School-Based Youth Programs SITE DESCRIPTION 42,000 Documented Resident Population 30 Square Miles 74 Sworn Officers 20 Non-sworn YOUTH OFFICERS Youth Services Division--3 School Districts 15 Officers (21.6%) Assigned to Schools + 8 SRO’s (High School) + 2 GREAT (Jr. High) + 5 DARE (Elementary)
Mission, Texas School-Based Youth Programs PURPOSE Deciding that “heavy handed” policing was not effective, the MPD began an aggressive partnership with the school districts to provide a program-based police presence in the schools. Officers roles include... Teaching (D.A.R.E. and G.R.E.A.T.) Guest lectures in classes Answer calls in the schools they are assigned to Provide counseling to students Serve as an information/intelligence resource for youth-related crime PURPOSE Deciding that “heavy handed” policing was not effective, the MPD began an aggressive partnership with the school districts to provide a program-based police presence in the schools. Officers roles include... Teaching (D.A.R.E. and G.R.E.A.T.) Guest lectures in classes Answer calls in the schools they are assigned to Provide counseling to students Serve as an information/intelligence resource for youth-related crime
Mission, Texas School-Based Youth Programs POLICIES AND PRACTICES School districts pay the officers’ salaries during the academic year (177 days) During the summers… + School officers receive mandated training + Attend special assignment-based training (e.g., D.A.R.E. in-service) + Assigned to patrol A review board from the schools selects officers Supervision… + Principal supervises for curriculum-related matters + Sergeant supervises all other facets
Mission, Texas School-Based Youth Programs CRITICAL FACTORS Officers must be self-initiated and communicative Officers must be given administrative flexibility Schools must make an officer feel like “one of the family” Honesty, sincerity with students is essential It must be clear that the officer will enforce the law when necessary + He/she is not a “soft touch” + No undue influence from schools on crime control decisions
Mission, Texas School-Based Youth Programs PROGRAM EFFECTS Notably fewer gang problems in both the schools and throughout the city (largely displaced) Fewer reported crime problems in schools or on school property Enhanced communication and liaison with schools to help solve crimes and symptomatic problems Significant increase in communication between police and community (students and parents alike) General increase in the quality of relationship with the community
Kingsville, Texas Gang Identification & Suppression SITE DESCRIPTION 25,300 Documented Resident Population 16 Square Miles 46 Sworn Officers 17 Non-sworn ASSIGNMENTS Two primary officers assigned to youth programs Other officers used as needed Chief takes an active role
PURPOSE Because of the emergence of gangs, a program focusing on the schools, parents and at-risk youth was developed to suppress current gang activity and prevent gang growth. The program was not instituted as a result of a specific plan, rather elements were included to meet needs or issues as they became apparent to the police Kingsville, Texas Gang Identification & Suppression
The program has several elements… Day and evening curfews School Liaison Officer received gang training Patrol officer on each shift was designated as a gang officer to monitor and report gang activity A “Parents on Patrol” was developed; predominantly work in the schools as hall monitors A “bike clinic” was established for the summers Graffiti eradication program Police respond to gang fights in schools Police work with the school to ban “gang colors” Tobacco ordinance passed as a tool for investigation Kingsville, Texas Gang Identification & Suppression
CRITICAL FACTORS Recognition that complete eradication of gangs is not a realistic goal; control is realistic Recognize that crime problems will change, so new program elements must be constantly developed to meet the evolving problems Be flexible, creative, and open to ideas PROGRAM EFFECTS Most serious problems have been eliminated “Wannabe” gang participation down significantly fewer problems in the schools Better communication with parents Kingsville, Texas Gang Identification & Suppression
El Paso, Texas Drive-By Shooting Response Team SITE DESCRIPTION 614,000 Documented Resident Population 257 Square Miles 1,182 Sworn Officers 230 Non-sworn DSRT Structure Work all gang related investigations 5 officers 24 hour on-call basis Work “straight through” investigation Physically located next to Juvenile Probation and Juvenile Service
PURPOSE Following growth in gang activity and increasing numbers of drive-by shootings, the DSRT was formed as an element of the department’s gang response. The intent of the DSRT is to quickly and effectively identify and arrest suspects in gang-related crime. DSRT works closely with… Gang Intelligence Unit which keeps track of gang members and trends in gang activities Community Response Against Street Hoodlums (CRASH) units working as proactive enforcement out of the patrol commands El Paso, Texas Drive-By Shooting Response Team
CRITICAL FACTORS An immediate “frozen” crime scene and control of witnesses by first responding officers Fast response by DSRT regardless of time Ability to work “straight through” a case Reliable, on-going intelligence Investigators getting to know the gang members, their families, and “showing respect” to gang members On-going, reliable confidential informants Strong relationship with District Attorney Support from administrators to operate creatively Dedicated personnel making the “extra effort” El Paso, Texas Drive-By Shooting Response Team
PROGRAM EFFECTS The DSRT’s current clearance rate is 93% Roughly 90% of the DSRT’s arrests occurred within 24 hours of the call out The DSRT seized 61 weapons from gang members in a 28 month period While gangs still exist, their presence has become less visible El Paso, Texas Drive-By Shooting Response Team
Corpus Christi, Texas Juvenile Enforcement Team (JET) SITE DESCRIPTION 276,880 Documented Resident Population 140 Square Miles 395 Sworn Officers 207 Non-sworn ORGANIZATION JET has 10 to 15 officers Organized in the Special Services Division of the Field Services Bureau Originally part of the patrol division
PURPOSE The Corpus Christi Police Department systematically enforces both a night-time and a daytime juvenile curfew A curfew center located in a sub-station is the site where nighttime curfew violators can be taken, while the YMCA operates a truancy center as a repository for daytime curfew violators The police department also fields a Juvenile Enforcement Team (JET) that emphasizes curfew enforcement Corpus Christi, Texas Juvenile Enforcement Team (JET)
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION By June 1996 increased public concern about gangs and drive-by shootings led the police department to examine its youth-focused tactics and programs JET was intended to be a concentrated effort on juvenile curfew enforcement Assumption was that gang activity and gang-related crime could be reduced if... + Curfews were aggressively enforced + Parents had greater information and accountability Corpus Christi, Texas Juvenile Enforcement Team (JET)
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Aggressive enforcement followed a 2 week public information campaign for students and parents “Zero Tolerance” policy Some complaints from parents, but generally strong public support Use of curfew center and YMCA cut down on time required to enforce curfews Corpus Christi, Texas Juvenile Enforcement Team (JET)
CRITICAL FACTORS Availability of curfew centers “Zero Tolerance” policy Having a team of officers (JET) specifically responsible for curfew enforcement Inter-related mission of JET to also deal with gangs Corpus Christi, Texas Juvenile Enforcement Team (JET)
PROGRAM EFFECTS At the outset, increase in number of curfew citations Decreased victimization of juveniles Decreased offenses committed by juveniles Increased arrests of juveniles for offenses other than curfew violations Corpus Christi, Texas Juvenile Enforcement Team (JET)
Implications Youth and Gang Programs As simple as it sounds, the first stage is to identify... The existence of youth problems The character/dynamics of those problems The goals of youth programs are to: Resolve immediate serious problems Suppress growth of dysfunctional behavior Displace crime phenomena Develop preventive programs Accomplishing these goals requires integration of Community policing Tactical policing Problem solving
Fundamentals Investigations Programs PREDOMINANT POLICING PROBLEMS Pervasive crime problem which was getting out of control” Difficulty in prosecuting crimes Increased public prominence of crimes CHARACTER OF THE PROBLEMS Frequently multi-jurisdictional Multiple criminal incidents Special assistance needed in prosecutions
Fundamentals Investigations Programs INTENT OF CRIME-SPECIFIC POLICE RESPONSES Identify and arrest offenders Encourage victim assistance Provide a coordinated, comprehensive approach GENERAL OBSERVATIONS Special attention is needed to address the unique characteristics of each crime type Programs must be integrate both traditional investigative responses and proactive activities
Fundamentals Investigations Programs KEY FACTORS Problem youth appear to have idle time which needs to be filled Peer pressure appears to be have more influence on many youth than parents and/or educators Many problem youth appear to lack a sense of belonging to a family or to a constructive social group
Beaumont, Texas Family Violence Task Force SITE DESCRIPTION Beaumont is located in East Texas, approximately 80 miles east-northeast of Houston. The county seat of Jefferson County, the city has a resident population of approximately 120,000 of which about 40% are African-American and around 7% are Hispanic. Being the employment and commercial center of the area, Beaumont's weekday population is roughly 350,000. Geographically, the city covers about 75 square miles. The police department has 265 sworn officers and 85 non-sworn personnel.
Beaumont, Texas Family Violence Task Force PURPOSE The Family Violence Task Force was formed in August 1996 in response to... + Increasing awareness of domestic violence, and + The recognition of need for a new investigative approach which deals with the unusual characteristics of victimization and investigation The unit was charged with + Investigating all domestic violence incidents + Providing education and training to local law enforcement agencies and civic organizations
Beaumont, Texas Family Violence Task Force PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The unit is assigned to the Investigations Division of the Police Department. + Comprised of two Patrolman grade Investigators, a supervising Detective Sergeant, and 1 civilian Case Specialist The case specialist functions as a liaison with the District Attorney’s office and other agencies Physically located at a site completely separate from any police facility + The intent of this was to make it easier for victims to meet with police and support personnel
Beaumont, Texas Family Violence Task Force PROGRAM DESCRIPTION A site was selected that was centrally located at a major intersection on the grounds of a large city park with a bus stop located in front of the offices The intent of the unit was twofold: + Investigate cases of reported family violence as quickly as possible in order to prosecute the offender and prevent future victimization from that offender + Provide education and intervention alternatives in high risk circumstances to prevent victimization.
Beaumont, Texas Family Violence Task Force PROGRAM DESCRIPTION All cases involving family violence (except homicide) reported to the police department are forwarded to the Task Force for investigation, cases are then assigned to individual investigators Every attempt is made to assign related cases to the same investigator Investigators work closely with shelters and prosecutors
Beaumont, Texas Family Violence Task Force CRITICAL FACTORS The unit’s physical location must be separate from the police department at a location which is easily accessible by public transportation Investigators need to establish a strong working relationship with critical support organizations Support of the District Attorney’s office is critical to thoroughly review cases and aggressively prosecute them
Beaumont, Texas Family Violence Task Force CRITICAL FACTORS Patrol officers must be trained on family violence calls, such as: + Identify all witnesses immediately (including name, address, phone, etc.) + Obtaining witness and victim statements as soon as possible + Taking photographs of victims to demonstrate injuries Cases need to be assigned to investigators immediately because the victim is more likely to cooperate
Beaumont, Texas Family Violence Task Force PROGRAM EFFECTS Increased number of cases reported to the police Increased number of domestic violence cases referred from the police to the prosecutor During the first year, over 82% of the cases investigated were disposed of Convictions increased by 22.1% Stronger bond developed between police department and both the shelters and victims--greater confidence in police
North Richland Hills, Texas Northeast Street Crimes Unit SITE DESCRIPTION Six agencies participate in the NSCU… + North Richland Hills Police Department + Richland Hills Police Department + Haltom City Police Department + Watauga Department of Public Safety + Southlake Police Department + Tarrant County Sheriff’s Department The jurisdictions are basically located within the northeast quadrant of Tarrant County between Fort Worth and the Denton County line
North Richland Hills, Texas Northeast Street Crimes Unit PURPOSE The participating agencies have entered into a formal agreement to staff and utilize a multi-agency street crimes unit. The unit provides three types of services within participating jurisdictions + Immediate investigative response to major crimes + Coordinated gang enforcement + Targeted street crime enforcement
North Richland Hills, Texas Northeast Street Crimes Unit PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Purpose of creation… + Deal with major crime problems likely involving multiple jurisdictions + More efficient use of police resources Primarily gang enforcement, but includes other street crimes The relationship between the agencies is a formal one supported by an “interlocal agreement,” governed by a Board of Directors composed of the Chiefs of Police Each agency assigns at least one full time officer each year
North Richland Hills, Texas Northeast Street Crimes Unit PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The budget is based on each city’s portion of the area population (total 1997 budget was $26,475) The unit… + Supervised by a North Richland Hills Sergeant + Sergeant reports to a NRHPD Captain who answers to the Board of Directors The NSCU provides three services… + Investigative response to major crimes/incidents + Gang intelligence and enforcement for the area + Targeted enforcement of emerging crime problems
North Richland Hills, Texas Northeast Street Crimes Unit CRITICAL FACTORS The formal agreement between the agencies All NSCU officers have sworn authority in all participating jurisdictions Careful selection of personnel who get along well with others, who can accomplish their goals, and not act like prima donnas Explicit definition of the Unit’s mission On-going and open communications between the members of the Board of Directors
North Richland Hills, Texas Northeast Street Crimes Unit PROGRAM EFFECTS For arrests made the Unit has a 100% conviction rate A number of targeted enforcement actions have led to successful apprehensions It is reported that gang members fear the Unit The Unit appears to be a logical and wise use of resources, however a formal evaluation has not been done
El Paso, Texas Auto Theft Task Force SITE DESCRIPTION El Paso has a population of approximately 614,000, covers 257 square miles, and is bordered on the south by Mexico. Together with Juarez, Mexico, it has a metropolitan region population of 2.5 million. The police department has an authorized strength of 1,182 sworn officers and 230 non-sworn positions. The department is divided into two major divisions--Operations and Administrative Services-- as well as five Regional Commands
El Paso, Texas Auto Theft Task Force PURPOSE A county-wide Auto Theft Task Force that responds to the high rate of auto theft in the area The problem is heavily influenced by the city’s proximity to the Mexican border The police department has implemented several patrol and investigative tactics in an effort to reduce the problem
El Paso, Texas Auto Theft Task Force PROGRAM DESCRIPTION A grant funds 19 sworn personnel and one civilian, while the city provides 14 additional sworn officers and several more non-sworn staff. The task force is headed by a lieutenant from the El Paso Police Department and includes three sergeants, nine investigators, 15 patrol officers, two crime prevention officers, and three officers assigned to abandoned vehicle-related duties.
El Paso, Texas Auto Theft Task Force PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The activities of the task force fall into four areas: + Enforcement-relies on crime analysis; hot spots + Border Checkpoints-work with Customs + Investigation-organized crime; theft rings + Crime Prevention-public education
El Paso, Texas Auto Theft Task Force CRITICAL FACTORS Dealing with the proximity to Mexico Continued grant funding from the Auto Theft Prevention authority Addressing the problem from different dimensions (e.g., enforcement, etc.) Cooperation with the Mexican police authorities (which is currently limited right now)
El Paso, Texas Auto Theft Task Force PROGRAM EFFECTS From the late 1980s to now, auto thefts that were once around 5,500 per year now typically are around 4,000--better than a 25% reduction Clearance rates for auto thefts have also been improving, albeit at slower rates
Implications Investigations Programs Aggressive investigative techniques frequently need innovative “twists” to resolve special crime problems. Effective investigations include problem solving strategies Investigations and community policing have a “hand in glove” relationship Effective changes in the crime problem can be achieved with innovative programming