Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Wind Farm Legal Issues ROGER A. McEOWEN ROGER A. McEOWEN Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics and Extension Specialist, Agricultural Law and Policy,

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Wind Farm Legal Issues ROGER A. McEOWEN ROGER A. McEOWEN Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics and Extension Specialist, Agricultural Law and Policy,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Wind Farm Legal Issues ROGER A. McEOWEN ROGER A. McEOWEN Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics and Extension Specialist, Agricultural Law and Policy, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS. Member of KS and NE Bars. Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics and Extension Specialist, Agricultural Law and Policy, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS. Member of KS and NE Bars.

2 Contact Information 305 Waters Hall KSU Manhattan, KS (785) (O) (785) (H)

3 Wind Energy Development Primary Issues Primary Issues Make a serious attempt to determine the intent of the developer Make a serious attempt to determine the intent of the developer Have they developed wind farms elsewhere? Have they developed wind farms elsewhere? Is financing in place? The typical investment approaches $100 million Is financing in place? The typical investment approaches $100 million Do they intend to assign the agreement? Do they intend to assign the agreement?

4 Wind Energy Development Primary Issues Primary Issues Carefully examine the structure of the land use agreement Carefully examine the structure of the land use agreement Never sign a lease/easement agreement with a developer without first seeking legal counsel Never sign a lease/easement agreement with a developer without first seeking legal counsel Must developer consent to landowner’s property use? Must developer consent to landowner’s property use? Is developer given rights not related to wind energy development? Is developer given rights not related to wind energy development? What is the compensation structure? What is the compensation structure? Payment timing Payment timing Payment frequency Payment frequency Payment for loss of crop cultivation Payment for loss of crop cultivation

5 Wind Energy Development Primary Issues Primary Issues Landowner must stay abreast of liability issues Landowner must stay abreast of liability issues Property taxes Property taxes H.B (intro. on 1/23/04 and referred to House Committee on Taxation on 1/26/04) H.B (intro. on 1/23/04 and referred to House Committee on Taxation on 1/26/04) Liability issues Liability issues Trespassers Trespassers Third party usage Third party usage Environmental/aesthetic issues Environmental/aesthetic issues Nuisance Nuisance Lawsuits and claims related to developer’s actions Lawsuits and claims related to developer’s actions

6 Wind Energy Development Site selection is the key to development and the avoidance of legal problems in the future: Site selection is the key to development and the avoidance of legal problems in the future: Windy (based on windy days and velocity) Windy (based on windy days and velocity) Near transmission lines Near transmission lines Access to roads Access to roads Few environmental concerns Few environmental concerns Community support – zoning, use permits, etc. Community support – zoning, use permits, etc.

7 Zoning Ordinances, Building Codes and Land Use Few ordinances pertain specifically to wind systems Few ordinances pertain specifically to wind systems Generally few or no codes that restrict the use of a wind turbine Generally few or no codes that restrict the use of a wind turbine Federal regulations exist concerning structure height within 10 miles of an airport Federal regulations exist concerning structure height within 10 miles of an airport

8 Utility-Scale Wind Turbines 750 KW to 1.5MW 750 KW to 1.5MW Tower heights from 170 to 320 feet Tower heights from 170 to 320 feet Blade diameter feet with a weight of between 8,000 and 10,000 lbs. Blade diameter feet with a weight of between 8,000 and 10,000 lbs. Cost to install is approx. $1 million per MW of installed capacity Cost to install is approx. $1 million per MW of installed capacity 1.5 MW turbine can produce 5 million KW/yr ( homes) 1.5 MW turbine can produce 5 million KW/yr ( homes) 6-12 turbines on a section of land 6-12 turbines on a section of land

9 Wind Energy Agreements Payment structure Payment structure Common fee is a minimum flat payment per turbine plus a royalty (% of revenue) Common fee is a minimum flat payment per turbine plus a royalty (% of revenue) Every aspect is negotiable: Every aspect is negotiable: Annual percentage (2% first 15 years) Annual percentage (2% first 15 years) Future year escalation (4% second 15 years) Future year escalation (4% second 15 years) Guaranteed minimum ($2,000 per turbine/yr) Guaranteed minimum ($2,000 per turbine/yr) Annual gross revenue (definition is the key) Annual gross revenue (definition is the key) Sale of electrons? Sale of electrons? Sale of green credits? Sale of green credits? Montezuma – 5 turbines, 20 yrs., $300,000 Montezuma – 5 turbines, 20 yrs., $300,000

10 Wind Energy Contracts Landowner will either get a lease document or an easement agreement Landowner will either get a lease document or an easement agreement If lease, it should be long enough for developer to recoup investment (at least 20 yrs) If lease, it should be long enough for developer to recoup investment (at least 20 yrs) If easement, does it include turbine sites, substations, air space, buffer areas, vegetation restrictions, building restrictions, transmissions, and associated rights of way? If easement, does it include turbine sites, substations, air space, buffer areas, vegetation restrictions, building restrictions, transmissions, and associated rights of way? If sale of land: Price = FMV + Wind Value If sale of land: Price = FMV + Wind Value

11 Wind Energy Contract Provisions Term of years – life of turbines Term of years – life of turbines Surface rights – ingress/egress Surface rights – ingress/egress Transmission rights Transmission rights Land use restrictions Land use restrictions Hunting? Hunting? Pasture burning? Pasture burning? Compensation Compensation Assignability – critical for financing Assignability – critical for financing Insert clause that ensures the original developer’s liability if assignee defaults under the terms of the agreement Insert clause that ensures the original developer’s liability if assignee defaults under the terms of the agreement

12 Legal Issues for Landowners How much of the land is subject to the agreement? How much of the land is subject to the agreement? Length of agreement Length of agreement Am I compensated fairly for the property rights I have given up? Am I compensated fairly for the property rights I have given up? Understand the economics and mechanics of wind energy production Understand the economics and mechanics of wind energy production Tax consequences of wind energy payments Tax consequences of wind energy payments Is payment based on wind energy production? Is it a fixed amount? Is payment based on wind energy production? Is it a fixed amount?

13 Legal Issues for Landowners Does the developer want to develop the land or just want a use right? Does the developer want to develop the land or just want a use right? For development, the construction clause should limit construction of wind energy structures to not more than 3 or 4 years with adequate compensation paid to the landowner for use restrictions during that time For development, the construction clause should limit construction of wind energy structures to not more than 3 or 4 years with adequate compensation paid to the landowner for use restrictions during that time

14 Legal Issues for Landowners What events allow the developer to terminate the agreement? What events allow the developer to terminate the agreement? Anytime without cause? Anytime without cause? Can I go to court? Binding arbitration? Can I go to court? Binding arbitration? Do I have any termination rights? If so, how do I exercise those rights? Do I have any termination rights? If so, how do I exercise those rights? What happens to the structures upon termination? What happens to the structures upon termination? Who pays for removal? Who pays for removal? How soon do they have to be removed? How soon do they have to be removed?

15 Wind Energy Agreements Consider clause language that requires landowner to be treated as favorably as neighbors that execute similar agreements Consider clause language that requires landowner to be treated as favorably as neighbors that execute similar agreements Define “neighbor” carefully Define “neighbor” carefully

16 Wind Energy Agreements Require that the agreement be recorded (not just a memorandum of the lease agreement) Require that the agreement be recorded (not just a memorandum of the lease agreement) Eliminates problem of having to find agreement on subsequent sale Eliminates problem of having to find agreement on subsequent sale HB 2280 (intro. KS House 2/2003) would have required recordation of lease agreement. Later amended and died in committee HB 2280 (intro. KS House 2/2003) would have required recordation of lease agreement. Later amended and died in committee S.B. 331 (intro. KS Senate on 1/22/04 and referred next day to Sen. Comm. On Util.) S.B. 331 (intro. KS Senate on 1/22/04 and referred next day to Sen. Comm. On Util.)

17 Wind Energy Agreements Never agree to confidentiality agreements Never agree to confidentiality agreements Have your insurance agent review the agreement Have your insurance agent review the agreement Will any USDA land use restrictions be violated? Will any USDA land use restrictions be violated? Consider clause requiring developer to indemnify landowner for any lost government payments or for imposition of any penalties Consider clause requiring developer to indemnify landowner for any lost government payments or for imposition of any penalties

18 Negotiating a Wind Energy Agreement Common problem: Common problem: Once proposed and submitted to landowner, company tends to not want to negotiate changes to the agreement’s terms Once proposed and submitted to landowner, company tends to not want to negotiate changes to the agreement’s terms Does landowner have meaningful options? Does landowner have meaningful options? Does landowner have legal representation? Does landowner have legal representation?

19 Wind Energy Contract Provisions Indemnification Indemnification Mitigation of damages Mitigation of damages Excavation and reclamation Excavation and reclamation E.G., who gets the rock in the Flint Hills that gets excavated? E.G., who gets the rock in the Flint Hills that gets excavated? Note: It takes approx. 188 cubic yards of concrete per tower Note: It takes approx. 188 cubic yards of concrete per tower Restoration Restoration What happens when the project ends? Is there a need to post bond? What happens when the project ends? Is there a need to post bond?

20 Risk Evaluation for Landowners Long term (25-30 years) Long term (25-30 years) Evaluation of developer Evaluation of developer Evaluation of operator Evaluation of operator Project ownership and control will change Project ownership and control will change Worst-case scenarios (e.g., tornados) Worst-case scenarios (e.g., tornados) Energy market changes Energy market changes Unrealistic expectations Unrealistic expectations Environmental issues Environmental issues Siting, zoning, permitting Siting, zoning, permitting Family and neighbor acceptance Family and neighbor acceptance

21 Liability and Insurance Landowner faces potential liability if their property poses any threat to the general public. Issues to be dealt with in the contract: Landowner faces potential liability if their property poses any threat to the general public. Issues to be dealt with in the contract: Wind turbine throwing a blade Wind turbine throwing a blade Tower collapsing onto neighboring property Tower collapsing onto neighboring property Set-back requirements Set-back requirements Attractive nuisance issues (safety fence?) Attractive nuisance issues (safety fence?)

22 Liability and Insurance Homeowner policies Homeowner policies Many can be extended to insure against liability brought about by damage or injury caused by a wind turbine Many can be extended to insure against liability brought about by damage or injury caused by a wind turbine Wind turbine can be protected by insurance coverage against damage as a result of fire, lightning, ice or theft Wind turbine can be protected by insurance coverage against damage as a result of fire, lightning, ice or theft

23 Environmental Concerns Flint Hills Flint Hills Threat to prairie ecosytem? Threat to prairie ecosytem? The Flint Hills are the largest remaining tallgrass prairie in the U.S. The Flint Hills are the largest remaining tallgrass prairie in the U.S. H.B (intro. KS House on 2/10/04 and referred to House Committee on Utilities on 2/11/04 H.B (intro. KS House on 2/10/04 and referred to House Committee on Utilities on 2/11/04 Would place a moratorium on wind turbine development in the Flint Hills Would place a moratorium on wind turbine development in the Flint Hills

24 Environmental Concerns Avian issues Avian issues Prairie chicken (further south) & fragmentation of habitat Prairie chicken (further south) & fragmentation of habitat Bird kills (slower blade rotation kills fewer birds) Bird kills (slower blade rotation kills fewer birds) Altamont Pass, CA litigation against Florida Power and Light Altamont Pass, CA litigation against Florida Power and Light

25 Environmental Concerns Aesthetics Aesthetics Viewscape, viewshed, scenic byways Viewscape, viewshed, scenic byways FAA lighting requirements (blinking light) FAA lighting requirements (blinking light) FAA restrictions if located close to airport FAA restrictions if located close to airport Noise issues (usually not objectionable) Noise issues (usually not objectionable) County zoning, conditional use permits County zoning, conditional use permits

26 Wind Farming in Kansas Potential for significant economic benefit for rural landowners Potential for significant economic benefit for rural landowners All agreements must be evaluated carefully by legal counsel All agreements must be evaluated carefully by legal counsel Attempt to negotiate any unfavorable terms Attempt to negotiate any unfavorable terms

27 THANK YOU! Roger A. McEowen 305 Waters Hall Kansas St. Univ. Manhattan, KS Roger A. McEowen 305 Waters Hall Kansas St. Univ. Manhattan, KS (785) (ph.) (785) (ph.) (785) (fax) (785) (fax)


Download ppt "Wind Farm Legal Issues ROGER A. McEOWEN ROGER A. McEOWEN Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics and Extension Specialist, Agricultural Law and Policy,"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google