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10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 1 Area Specific IMO Tools.

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Presentation on theme: "10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 1 Area Specific IMO Tools."— Presentation transcript:

1 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 1 Area Specific IMO Tools

2 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 2 Overview Types of damage caused by ships IMO: What is it and what can it do for you? The Toolbox –SOLAS ship routing/reporting –MARPOL Special Areas/SOX Emission Control Areas (SECAs) –Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSAs)

3 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 3 Damage Caused by Ships Operational discharges Accidental or intentional pollution Physical damage to marine life and habitats

4 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 4 Damage Caused by Ships Examples of particular issues: –Oil pollution –Chemicals, Garbage –Mystery spills –Anti-fouling systems –Aquatic nuisance species –Groundings –Collisions

5 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 5 Damage Caused by Ships Specific issues pertinent to Gulf of Honduras States: –Increased volume of cargo into and out of Region (including oil and hazmats), increased ship traffic, increased size of ships and deeper draft –Shipping important to economies of the Region –Prevention of collisions, groundings –Pollution prevention –Navigation safety –Hydrography: outdated, inadequate coverage

6 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 6 IMO: What is it and what can it do for you? Specialized Agency of the United Nations Motto: “Safe, secure and efficient shipping on clean oceans” Law of the Sea Convention and IMO –“Competent international organization” (see, e.g., Article 211) –Maintain the balance between protection of the environment and navigation rights

7 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 7 IMO Participation: –166 Member States Large tonnage States (Panama 21%, Liberia 9%, Bahamas 6%, Malta 5%, Cyprus 4%) Regional blocks (GULAC, EU) –Observers Industry E-NGOs

8 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 8 IMO MARPOL COLREGs SOLAS AFS OPRC Ballast Water Managem’t SUA STCW London Convention CLC FUND Load Lines Codes, Guidelines, Circulars, Resolutions … Structure: Assembly, Council, 4 Committees, 11 Subcommittees –Working Groups, Drafting Groups, Correspondence Groups Secretariat functions –Does not develop policy –Experts to assist and facilitate work of Member Governments –Depositary for conventions

9 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 9 IMO Maritime Safety preeminent importance Environmental Protection –Focus pollution –Biological concerns with aquatic nuisance species transferred through ballast water –Individual animal issues Ship strikes of right whales

10 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 10 The Toolbox Existing measures are the focus of this presentation Others may be developed in the future, depending on identified need –Examples of tools developed in recent past: No Anchoring Areas, SOX Emission Control Areas, Ballast Water Management Areas

11 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 11 The Toolbox Existing : SOLAS Chapter V/Reg 10: Ship routing –e.g., areas to be avoided, traffic separation schemes, no anchoring areas SOLAS Chapter V/Reg 11: Mandatory Ship Reporting MARPOL: Special Areas, SOX Emission Control Areas Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas

12 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 12 The Toolbox: Ship Routing & Reporting IMO Ships’ Routing Guide –Part A: General Provisions on Ships Routing (GPSR) –Parts B-F: adopted ships’ routing systems –Part G: adopted mandatory ship reporting and routing systems –Part H: archipelagic sealanes

13 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 13 The Toolbox: Ship Routing & Reporting Ships’ routing and reporting systems contribute to the safety of life at sea, the safety and efficiency of navigation, and/or the protection of the marine environment.

14 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 14 The Toolbox: Ship Routing & Reporting Government actions in planning and designing a routing system: 1.Para 5.2.7 Should take into account aids to NAV, hydrographic surveys, charts in the area 2.Para 5.7.2 Should consult with authorities responsible for NAV aids, hydro surveys, nautical pubs 3.Para 6.7 State of hydrographic surveys w/n limits of routing syst and approaches should be such that full info on existing depths of water and hazards to nav is available to nautical charting authorities. IMO: 1.Paras 3.2.2 and 3.3 Must consider in adopting/amending a routing scheme whether state of hydrography is adequate for purpose of system 2. Para 3.4.3 Not adopt/amend where system may affect demand for improvement or adjustment in NAV aids or hydrographic surveys Implementation: Section 9 IMO and IHO—how to chart routing systems doen in acordance with IHO legends, symbold, and notes.

15 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 15 The Toolbox: Ship Routing & Reporting Traffic separation scheme Separation zone or line Traffic lane Roundabout Inshore traffic zone Archipelagic sealanes Two-way route Recommended route Recommended track Precautionary area Area to be avoided No anchoring area Established direction of traffic flow Recommended direction of traffic flow

16 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 16 The Toolbox: Ship Routing & Reporting Traffic separation scheme (TSS): A routing system aimed at the separation of opposing streams of traffic by appropriate means and by the establishment of traffic lanes. GPSR, 2.1.2 COLREGs Rule 10 applies for traffic within the TSS

17 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 17 The Toolbox: Ship Routing & Reporting Area to be avoided (ATBA): A routing measure comprising an area within defined limits in which either navigation is particularly hazardous or it is exceptionally important to avoid casualties and which should be avoided by all ships, or certain classes of ships. GPSR, 2.1.12

18 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 18 The Toolbox: Ship Routing & Reporting No Anchoring Area (NAA): A routing measure comprising an area within defined limits where anchoring is hazardous or could result in unacceptable damage to the marine environment. Anchoring in a no anchoring area should be avoided by all ships or certain classes of ships, except in case of immediate danger to the ship or the persons on board. GPSR 2.1.14

19 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 19 The Toolbox: Ship Routing & Reporting Recommended track: A route which has been specially examined to ensure so far as possible that it is free of dangers and along which ships are advised to navigate. GPSR, 2.1.9.

20 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 20 The Toolbox: Ship Routing & Reporting Two-way route: A route within defined limits inside which two way traffic is established, aimed at providing safe passage of ships through waters where navigation is difficult or dangerous. GPSR, 2.1.7.

21 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 21 The Toolbox: Ship Routing & Reporting SOLAS, Chapter V/Reg. 11 and MSC.43(64) Reporting versus routing: –Less burdensome on industry, thus may be more acceptable –No change in movement of ship –Info gathering tool –Need is for contact w/mariner –More burden on proposing State to develop system, no cost to mariners

22 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 22 The Toolbox: Ship Routing & Reporting Define: –Objectives –Area and participating ships Information requested: –Limited to info essential to accomplish objectives –Generally limited to ship’s name, call sign, IMO no., and position –If justified, info such as movement through system, speed, general categories of hazardous cargo, destination

23 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 23 The Toolbox: Ship Routing & Reporting Shore-Based Authority –VTS, satellite –Shall have capability of interaction and assist ships with information –Concerns of cost, proper equipment

24 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 24 The Toolbox: Special Areas & SOX Emission Control Areas MARPOL –Special Areas Annex I: Oil Annex II: Noxious Liquid Substance Annex V: Garbage A.927 Annex I only –SOX Emission Control Areas Annex VI, App. III

25 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 25 The Toolbox: Special Areas & SOX Emission Control Areas Special Areas are certain sea areas in which, for recognized technical reasons relating to their oceanographical and ecological conditions and to the particular character of ship traffic, the adoption of special mandatory methods for the prevention of marine pollution is required Under MARPOL, Special Areas are provided with a higher level of protection than other areas of the sea

26 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 26 The Toolbox: Special Areas & SOX Emission Control Areas WARNING!! 1.Must show that basic MARPOL requirements do not provide adequate protection 2.Designation does not enter into force unless there are adequate reception facilities in the area –Problems gathering data to justify –Expensive

27 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 27 The Toolbox: Special Areas & SOX Emission Control Areas Objective: prevent, reduce, and control ships’ SOX air emissions and their attendant adverse impacts on land and sea areas Specific info that must be provided includes action taken on land to address land-based sources of SOX emissions If approved, ships must use fuel with only a 1.5% sulfur content

28 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 28 The Toolbox: Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSAs) To be designated as a PSSA, an area must: (1) Have certain characteristics (ecological, socio- economic, scientific), (2) Be vulnerable to damage by international maritime traffic, and (3) Have protective measures adopted by IMO to address the identified vulnerability

29 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 29 The Toolbox: PSSAs History: 1991 PSSA Guidelines adopted Revisions: A.885(21)(1999) A.927(22)(2001) A.982(24)(2005)

30 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 30 The Toolbox: PSSAs IMO-designated PSSAs: 1. Great Barrier Reef and Torres Strait (AUS/PNG 1990 and 2005) 2. Sabana-Camaguey Archipelago (Cuba 1997) 3. Marine Area Around the Florida Keys (US 2002) 4. Malpelo Island (Colombia 2002) 5. Wadden Sea (Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands 2002) 6. Paracas National Reserve (Peru 2003) 7. Western European Waters (Belgium, France, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, UK 2004), 8. Baltic Sea Area (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden 2005), 9. Canary Islands (Spain 2005) 10. Galapagos Archipelago (Ecuador 2005)

31 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 31 The Toolbox: PSSAs Element One: Ecologic, Socio-Economic, or Scientific Criteria Uniqueness Social or economic Critical Habitat Cultural Heritage Dependency Human dependency Representativeness Research Diversity Baseline or Monitoring Productivity Education Spawning/Breeding Grounds Naturalness Fragility Integrity Bio-geographic Only one of these characteristics are necessary for designation!!

32 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 32 The Toolbox: PSSAs Element Two: Vulnerability to damage by international maritime traffic –Document damage or threats of damage –Talk to mariners, fishermen, NGOs –Clearly identify the problem in detail

33 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 33 The Toolbox: PSSAs Element Three: Identification of Associated Protective Measures –Tailor measures to address the threat: linkage issue, incident history –Impact on traffic Ships to which measure applies Hours/Routes Number of ships, types of ships, traffic patterns, aids to navigation

34 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 34 The Toolbox: PSSAs Element Three: –Clearly identify the legal basis for the measure –Three options: (1) existing IMO instruments, or (2) amendment to existing IMO instrument or creation of a new instrument, or (3) UNCLOS (e.g., port State, Articles 21, 22, 42, 43, 211(6)

35 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 35 The Toolbox: PSSAs PSSA proposals may only be submitted by Member Governments Always bear in mind maritime safety and impact on shipping traffic Must submit draft of application for protective measure at same time as PSSA proposal itself

36 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 36 The Toolbox: PSSAs There is no legal significance to PSSA designation in and of itself. The legal significance is derived from the measure because it results in a change to ship operations.

37 10/6/2006IMO Tools Acapulco, Mexico 37 Thank You! Lindy.S.Johnson@NOAA.GOV 202-482-1400

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