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What I am going to talk about today Moles Moles Good, bad, ugly and ugliest skin lesions Good, bad, ugly and ugliest skin lesions How to prevent skin cancer.

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Presentation on theme: "What I am going to talk about today Moles Moles Good, bad, ugly and ugliest skin lesions Good, bad, ugly and ugliest skin lesions How to prevent skin cancer."— Presentation transcript:

1 What I am going to talk about today Moles Moles Good, bad, ugly and ugliest skin lesions Good, bad, ugly and ugliest skin lesions How to prevent skin cancer How to prevent skin cancer Sunscreens Sunscreens A word about Laser A word about Laser

2 Moles Most people have a few Most people have a few Most do not cause a problem Most do not cause a problem Occasionally a nuisance! Occasionally a nuisance!

3 Flat dark moles Junctional naevus – located at junction of outer and inner layer of skin More likely than other moles to cause a problem – so the one to watch for!

4 Raised skin coloured moles Dermal naevus – located in deeper layer of skin Very rare that they turn into melanoma

5 Slightly raised dark moles Raised in the middle Surrounding dark pigmentation Less likely to cause a problem

6 Looks ugly but good! Seborrhoeic keratosis Extremely common Rough top Usually do not need treatment Get them checked if any doubt

7 Sin tags Harmless but can irritate and aggravate Neck, chest, back, armpits or in the groin area Can be removed by cutting, freezing or burning

8 Warts Very common Nuisance but not a serious problem Treatment can be more uncomfortable and troublesome than the warts

9 Treating warts Number of treatments, none of them very successful Number of treatments, none of them very successful Paints Paints Freezing Freezing Duct tape! Duct tape!

10 How to cure your wart with duct tape! Cover the wart with duct tape for 6 days. If the tape falls off during this time, put on a fresh piece Cover the wart with duct tape for 6 days. If the tape falls off during this time, put on a fresh piece After 6 days, remove the tape and soak the wart in warm water for 5 minutes. After drying, rub gently with an emery board or pumice stone to get rid of dead tissue from the top of the wart After 6 days, remove the tape and soak the wart in warm water for 5 minutes. After drying, rub gently with an emery board or pumice stone to get rid of dead tissue from the top of the wart Leave the wart uncovered overnight and put the tape on again the next day Leave the wart uncovered overnight and put the tape on again the next day Continue for up to two months. Continue for up to two months.

11 Actinic keratoses

12 Dry, scaly patches Dry, scaly patches Form on sun exposed areas of the skin, including the scalp, face, forearms, and back of the hands Form on sun exposed areas of the skin, including the scalp, face, forearms, and back of the hands Caused by years of excessive sun exposure. Caused by years of excessive sun exposure. If you develop one you are likely to get another If you develop one you are likely to get another

13 Actinic keratoses Actinic keratoses on the lip Appear as cracking, dried lips

14 Actinic keratoses Actinic keratoses are considered PRECANCEROUS Actinic keratoses are considered PRECANCEROUS Important to treat them Important to treat them Treat by freezing, creams and sometimes surgery Treat by freezing, creams and sometimes surgery

15 Avoiding new Actinic keratoses AVOID SUN EXPOSURE AVOID SUN EXPOSURE The best way to avoid new actinic keratoses and skin cancer is to protect your skin from the sun and the damaging ultraviolet (UV) rays. The best way to avoid new actinic keratoses and skin cancer is to protect your skin from the sun and the damaging ultraviolet (UV) rays. If you can’t avoid spending time outdoors, make sun protection a priority. Use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with a minimum SPF of 30, and cover your skin with long-sleeved shirts, trousers, and a wide-brimmed hat. If you can’t avoid spending time outdoors, make sun protection a priority. Use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with a minimum SPF of 30, and cover your skin with long-sleeved shirts, trousers, and a wide-brimmed hat.

16 Basal cell carcinoma Commonest type of cancer Commonest type of cancer 80% of skin cancers 80% of skin cancers NOT dangerous as does not spread beyond the skin NOT dangerous as does not spread beyond the skin

17 Basal cell carcinoma A sore that comes and goes but never completely heals A shiny bump or nodule, especially if it appears pearly or translucent

18 Treatment of basal cell carcinoma Creams for superficial ones Creams for superficial ones Freezing for small ones Freezing for small ones Surgery for others Surgery for others

19 Squamous cell carcinoma 10% of skin cancers A dry, crusted, scaly patch of skin that is red and swollen at the base A sore that won’t heal Crusted skin

20 Squamous cell carcinoma Can sometimes spread beyond the skin Can sometimes spread beyond the skin Important to diagnose and treat early Important to diagnose and treat early Main treatment is surgery Main treatment is surgery Sometimes radiotherapy is used Sometimes radiotherapy is used

21 The ugliest!

22 Melanoma 5% of skin cancers Most DANGEROUS SKIN CANCER A mole that changes in size, shape, colour, or feel A new mole that appears and continues to grow or change

23 The ABCDE rule Asymmetry. Does one half of a mole look different from the other? Asymmetry. Does one half of a mole look different from the other? Border. Is the edge (border) of the mole ragged, notched, or blurred? Border. Is the edge (border) of the mole ragged, notched, or blurred? Colour. Does the mole have a variety of hues or colours within the same lesion? Colour. Does the mole have a variety of hues or colours within the same lesion? Diameter. Is the mole wider than 6mm or 1/4 inch? Diameter. Is the mole wider than 6mm or 1/4 inch? Evolving. Does the mole or skin lesion look different from your other moles or has it changed in shape colour, size or other trait? Evolving. Does the mole or skin lesion look different from your other moles or has it changed in shape colour, size or other trait?

24 Key point If you notice a mole that is different from others, or which changes, itches, or bleeds even if it is smaller than 6 millimetre – GET ADVICE If you notice a mole that is different from others, or which changes, itches, or bleeds even if it is smaller than 6 millimetre – GET ADVICE

25 Who is at risk? No one knows exact cause No one knows exact cause Fair skin Fair skin Many moles especially more than 50 Many moles especially more than 50 Severe, blistering sunburns: People who have had at least one severe, blistering sunburn as a child or teenager are at increased risk of melanoma Severe, blistering sunburns: People who have had at least one severe, blistering sunburn as a child or teenager are at increased risk of melanoma Ultraviolet (UV) radiation – sunlight as well as tanning booths and sunlamps Ultraviolet (UV) radiation – sunlight as well as tanning booths and sunlamps Family history or personal history of melanoma Family history or personal history of melanoma

26 Treatment of melanoma Surgery is main treatment Surgery is main treatment Sometimes chemotherapy Sometimes chemotherapy

27 How to prevent skin cancers? Minimize exposure to the sun at midday - between the hours of 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. Minimize exposure to the sun at midday - between the hours of 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. Apply sunscreen, with at least an SPF-30 or higher that protects against both UVA and UVB rays, to all areas of the body that are exposed to the sun. Apply sunscreen, with at least an SPF-30 or higher that protects against both UVA and UVB rays, to all areas of the body that are exposed to the sun. Reapply sunscreen every two hours, even on cloudy days. Reapply after swimming or perspiring. Reapply sunscreen every two hours, even on cloudy days. Reapply after swimming or perspiring.

28 How to prevent skin cancers? Wear clothing that covers the body and shades the face – wear hat and sunglasses Wear clothing that covers the body and shades the face – wear hat and sunglasses Avoid exposure to UV radiation from sunlamps or tanning parlours. Avoid exposure to UV radiation from sunlamps or tanning parlours. Protect children. Keep them from excessive sun exposure when the sun is strongest (between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.), and apply sunscreen liberally and frequently to children 6 months of age and older. Protect children. Keep them from excessive sun exposure when the sun is strongest (between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.), and apply sunscreen liberally and frequently to children 6 months of age and older.

29 Skin self check Monthly check for changes in moles Monthly check for changes in moles Stand in front of a mirror and check your skin for: Stand in front of a mirror and check your skin for: Unusual discolorations Abnormal moles, looking for changes in: Colour Colour Shape Shape Size Size Check the hard-to-see areas: Check the hard-to-see areas: Under your arms The soles of your feet Between your toes Part your hair and check your scalp Part your hair and check your scalp Have your partner check your back for skin discolorations and changing moles Have your partner check your back for skin discolorations and changing moles

30 About sunscreens Sunscreen protects your skin by absorbing and reflecting ultraviolet rays from the sun Sunscreen protects your skin by absorbing and reflecting ultraviolet rays from the sun

31 Sunscreens All sunscreens have a sun protection factor (SPF) rating that indicates how long a sunscreen remains effective on the skin. All sunscreens have a sun protection factor (SPF) rating that indicates how long a sunscreen remains effective on the skin. If you normally develop a sunburn in 10 minutes without wearing a sunscreen, a sunscreen with an SPF of 15 will protect you for 150 minutes — 10 minutes multiplied by the SPF of 15. If you normally develop a sunburn in 10 minutes without wearing a sunscreen, a sunscreen with an SPF of 15 will protect you for 150 minutes — 10 minutes multiplied by the SPF of 15.

32 Sunscreens Use a "broad spectrum" sunscreen – one that protects against ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) Use a "broad spectrum" sunscreen – one that protects against ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) Use sunscreens with an SPF of at least 30. Use sunscreens with an SPF of at least 30. Adults should cover their bodies in enough sunscreen that would fill a shot glass and reapply every two hours. Adults should cover their bodies in enough sunscreen that would fill a shot glass and reapply every two hours.

33 Laser treatment Not generally on the NHS! Not generally on the NHS! Useful for hair removal, thread veins, skin blemishes and scars Useful for hair removal, thread veins, skin blemishes and scars Important to select a clinic with good track record Important to select a clinic with good track record

34 Take Home Messages If you notice a new skin lesion that stays or an old one that starts changing GET ADVICE. If you notice a new skin lesion that stays or an old one that starts changing GET ADVICE. Enjoy the Sun but with RESPECT Enjoy the Sun but with RESPECT IF you have a wart and you know it, make your way to the nearest DIY store and get some duct tape IF you have a wart and you know it, make your way to the nearest DIY store and get some duct tape Above all, Smile a little and Above all, Smile a little and Keep Safe Keep Safe

35 Acknowledgement Some pictures from with thanks Some pictures from with thankswww.dermnetnz.org


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