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- Unit IV – Prevention Measures for Unintentional Introductions Hitchhikers, Stowaways, Contaminants Randy G. Westbrooks Rebecca M. Westbrooks Steven.

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Presentation on theme: "- Unit IV – Prevention Measures for Unintentional Introductions Hitchhikers, Stowaways, Contaminants Randy G. Westbrooks Rebecca M. Westbrooks Steven."— Presentation transcript:

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2 - Unit IV – Prevention Measures for Unintentional Introductions Hitchhikers, Stowaways, Contaminants Randy G. Westbrooks Rebecca M. Westbrooks Steven Manning Global Invasive Species Programme Cape Town, South Africa

3 Unit Objectives Understand, discuss, and provide examples of IAS introductions by Commercial Shipping Understand, discuss, and provide examples of IAS introductions by Commercial Shipping Understand, discuss, and provide examples of Aircraft related IAS introductions Understand, discuss, and provide examples of Aircraft related IAS introductions Understand and discuss break bulk shipments, intermodal containers, and other types of packaging as vectors of IAS Understand and discuss break bulk shipments, intermodal containers, and other types of packaging as vectors of IAS

4 Unit Session Outline and Agenda Session Session 1. Introduction of IAS through Commercial Shipping. Introduction of IAS through Commercial Shipping Session Session 2. Break Bulk Cargo and Intermodal Containers. Break Bulk Cargo and Intermodal Containers Small Group Discussions Small Group Discussions Small Group Presentations Small Group Presentations Break Break Class Discussion - Unit 4 Lab Exercise Class Discussion - Unit 4 Lab Exercise Visit to Dar es Salaam Airport (Wed. – 13 December). Visit to Dar es Salaam Airport (Wed. – 13 December) Review of Major Concepts in Unit IV Review of Major Concepts in Unit IV Unit Four Evaluation Unit Four Evaluation.

5 Introduction to Unintentional Introductions. Hitchhikers, Stowaways, Contaminants – Organisms Transported by Accident or Chance Hitchhikers, Stowaways, Contaminants – Organisms Transported by Accident or Chance Border Clearance – First Line of Defense Against Unintentionally Introduced IAS Border Clearance – First Line of Defense Against Unintentionally Introduced IAS PestOriginCommodityPathway Gypsy Moth JapanVehicle Ocean Freight Black Carpenter Ant USA Building Materials Ocean Freight Giant African Snail Papua New Guinea Empty Container Ocean Freight Channeled Apple Snail Papua New Guinea Empty Container Ocean freight Honey Bee Papua New Guinea Ship Crane Ocean Freighter Khapra Beetle Iran Wind Chimes Air – Baggage Quarantine Significant Hitchhikers – AQIS –

6 Session 1. Unintentional Introductions Through Commercial Shipping Ballast Water – Hull Fouling. Natural Spread of Marine Organisms Natural Spread of Marine Organisms Currents, Floating Logs, Debris Currents, Floating Logs, Debris Natural Barriers to Spread of Marine Organisms Natural Barriers to Spread of Marine Organisms Temperature, Isolation of Continents Temperature, Isolation of Continents High Marine Diversity High Marine Diversity Breach of Natural Barriers by Ocean Going Ships Breach of Natural Barriers by Ocean Going Ships Sailing Ships Sailing Ships Solid Ballast (Soil, Sand, Rocks) – Major IAS Pathway Solid Ballast (Soil, Sand, Rocks) – Major IAS Pathway Modern Ships Modern Ships Water Ballast in Tanks Water Ballast in Tanks 3-5 Billion Tons Water/Yr. 3-5 Billion Tons Water/Yr. 7,000 Aquatic Species Moved Annually 7,000 Aquatic Species Moved Annually

7 Ballast Water Exchange. Unloading Cargo Loading Ballast Water at Source Port Cargo Hold Empty Ballast Tanks Full During Voyage Cargo Hold Full Ballast Tanks Empty During Voyage Loading Cargo Discharging Ballast Water At Destination Port

8 Four Major Threats to Oceans Land Based Sources of Marine Pollution Land Based Sources of Marine Pollution Overuse of Marine Resources Overuse of Marine Resources Physical Alter and Destruction of Marine Habitats Physical Alter and Destruction of Marine Habitats Aquatic Nuisance Species Aquatic Nuisance Species In Ballast Water In Ballast Water Hull Fouling Organisms Hull Fouling Organisms

9 Empty Ballast Water Tank

10 Between , control costs for zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the United States (introduced to the Great Lakes in ballast water from eastern Europe in the mid-1980s), was about $1 billion. - ANS Factoid -

11 Case Study – American Comb Jelly in the Black and Caspian Seas. 1990s – Depleted Plankton in Black Sea (Turkey) 1990s – Depleted Plankton in Black Sea (Turkey) Fisheries Collapsed Fisheries Collapsed 1999 – Detected in the Caspian Sea (Russia, Iran) 1999 – Detected in the Caspian Sea (Russia, Iran) Most Important Sturgeon Fishery Most Important Sturgeon Fishery Caspian Sea

12 Chinese Mitten Crab in CA. Burrowing Crab (From China) Burrowing Crab (From China) Introduction to USA Introduction to USA 1990s – San Francisco Bay, Delta 1990s – San Francisco Bay, Delta Ballast Water Ballast Water Threat Threat Native Invertebrates – Fresh/Brackish Waters Native Invertebrates – Fresh/Brackish Waters Commercial Fishing and Shrimping Operations Commercial Fishing and Shrimping Operations Intermediate Host for Oriental Lung Fluke Intermediate Host for Oriental Lung Fluke

13 Strategies for Minimizing Spread of ANS by Ballast Water. A. Mid-Ocean Exchange.B. Discharge Ballast at Dock While Loading Cargo. A. OR B. ?????

14 Strategies for Minimizing ANS in Ballast Water. Mid-Ocean Ballast Exchange Mid-Ocean Ballast Exchange In-Situ Biocides to Kill Organisms in Tanks In-Situ Biocides to Kill Organisms in Tanks Ozone, Ultra-violet Light Treatments Ozone, Ultra-violet Light Treatments

15 Plane and Ship Garbage. Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreaks – Many Traced to Ship Garbage Fed to Livestock Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreaks – Many Traced to Ship Garbage Fed to Livestock Garbage on Ships and Planes from Foreign Garbage on Ships and Planes from Foreign Kept on Board Kept on Board Incinerated Incinerated

16 4.2. Aircraft Related Introductions. Major Pathway for Rapid Spread Major Pathway for Rapid Spread 21 Hours – Raleigh, NC to Dar es Salaam, TNZ 21 Hours – Raleigh, NC to Dar es Salaam, TNZ Aerosol Treatments to Kill Hitchhiking Insects – Aerosol Treatments to Kill Hitchhiking Insects – Mandatory upon Arrival in AUS Mandatory upon Arrival in AUS

17 Case Study – Brown Tree Snake in the South Pacific BTS – Native to Papua New Guinea BTS – Native to Papua New Guinea 1947 – Spread to Guam; Postwar Construction Equipment 1947 – Spread to Guam; Postwar Construction Equipment 1950s – Sighted Inland from Seaport 1950s – Sighted Inland from Seaport Late 1960s – Dispersed Throughout Island Late 1960s – Dispersed Throughout Island Mid-1970s – Endemic Birds Found Declining Mid-1970s – Endemic Birds Found Declining BTS – 13,000 per Square Mile BTS – 13,000 per Square Mile Extinctions Extinctions 2/3 Native Bats 2/3 Native Bats 5/11 Native Lizards 5/11 Native Lizards 9/12 Native Birds 9/12 Native Birds Electrical Outages Electrical Outages Spread in Wheel Wells of Aircraft Spread in Wheel Wells of Aircraft Hawaii, other Islands Hawaii, other Islands Guam Rail – 50,000 Birds – 50 Birds

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19 Session 2 - Inspection of Break Bulk Cargo and Intermodal Containers.

20 Inspection and Treatment of Break Bulk Cargo. Offloaded from Ship on Pallets Offloaded from Ship on Pallets Stored in Warehouses Until Released for Delivery Stored in Warehouses Until Released for Delivery Inspection – Simple, Efficient Inspection – Simple, Efficient Tent Fumigation – If Necessary Tent Fumigation – If Necessary

21 Case Study – Snails on WWII Tanks from Portugal. July, 1982 – Shipment of WWII Army Tanks from Portugal Imported Through Charleston, SC July, 1982 – Shipment of WWII Army Tanks from Portugal Imported Through Charleston, SC All Tanks Infested with Snails All Tanks Infested with Snails Dock Perimeter Salted Dock Perimeter Salted Tanks Fumigated with Methyl Bromide Tanks Fumigated with Methyl Bromide

22 Intermodal Containers – Modern Shipping Wonder – Bane of Port Inspection. ICs – Introduced in 1950s ICs – Introduced in 1950s Streamlined Global ‘Door to Door’ Shipping Streamlined Global ‘Door to Door’ Shipping Convenient – Loading Dock Inspection Convenient – Loading Dock Inspection Tailgate Inspection – Sometimes Totally Ineffective Tailgate Inspection – Sometimes Totally Ineffective

23 4.4. Commodity Packaging – as a Vector of IAS. Solid Wood Packing – Primary Shipping Material of Choice Solid Wood Packing – Primary Shipping Material of Choice Threat – Insects and Plant Diseases Threat – Insects and Plant Diseases ISPM __ - IPPC Guidelines for Regulating Wood Packaging Material in International Trade. (2002). ISPM __ - IPPC Guidelines for Regulating Wood Packaging Material in International Trade. (2002). Unprocessed Raw Wood Unprocessed Raw Wood Pallets, Dunnage, Crating, Packing blocks, Pallets, Dunnage, Crating, Packing blocks, Drums, Skids Drums, Skids Mandatory – Condition of Entry Treatments Mandatory – Condition of Entry Treatments Heat treatment, kiln drying, or chemical pressure impregnation Heat treatment, kiln drying, or chemical pressure impregnation Minimum core temperature of 56 o C (123 o F) for a minimum of 30 minutes Minimum core temperature of 56 o C (123 o F) for a minimum of 30 minutes Fumigation with methyl bromide Fumigation with methyl bromide

24 Case Study: Extruded Wire Shipments from Ubisa, Spain – Charleston, S.C, Origin – Ubisa, Spain Origin – Ubisa, Spain Mode of Entry: Containerized Mode of Entry: Containerized Threat: Wood Bracing Infested with Wood Borers (Cerambycids) Threat: Wood Bracing Infested with Wood Borers (Cerambycids) Action: Fumigated with Methyl Bromide Action: Fumigated with Methyl Bromide

25 Case Study: Asian Longhorned Beetle in the United States – Contaminant of Solid Wood Packing. Origin – China Origin – China Threat – Hardwood Trees Threat – Hardwood Trees Maple, Horse Chestnut, Mulberry, Black Locust, Elm, Birch, Willow, Poplar, Green Ash Maple, Horse Chestnut, Mulberry, Black Locust, Elm, Birch, Willow, Poplar, Green Ash 1996 – New York City 1996 – New York City 1998 – Chicago 1998 – Chicago Treatment – None Treatment – None Trees Destroyed Trees Destroyed Probably Mode of Entry Probably Mode of Entry Untreated Raw Wood Packing Untreated Raw Wood Packing

26 Major Concepts in Unit 4. Means of conveyance can serve as IAS vectors. Means of conveyance can serve as IAS vectors. 3-5 Billion tons of water; 7,000 species of aquatic organisms are moved around the world each Year. 3-5 Billion tons of water; 7,000 species of aquatic organisms are moved around the world each Year. Four greatest threats to Oceans – ANS, Marine Pollution, Over Use of Marine Resources, Destruction of Marine Habitat. Four greatest threats to Oceans – ANS, Marine Pollution, Over Use of Marine Resources, Destruction of Marine Habitat. The most widely recommended strategy for minimizing the introduction of IAS in ballast water is mid-oceanic ballast exchange. The most widely recommended strategy for minimizing the introduction of IAS in ballast water is mid-oceanic ballast exchange. Over the past 150 years, numerous outbreaks of foot and mouth disease in several countries have been traced back to infected meat that was taken off ocean freighters at ports of entry around the world. Over the past 150 years, numerous outbreaks of foot and mouth disease in several countries have been traced back to infected meat that was taken off ocean freighters at ports of entry around the world. Cargo aircraft serve as a major vector for the spread of all types of IAS. Insects typically enter aircraft being loaded at random, but in greater numbers during the summer or rainy season. Cargo aircraft serve as a major vector for the spread of all types of IAS. Insects typically enter aircraft being loaded at random, but in greater numbers during the summer or rainy season.

27 Major Concepts in Unit 4, Contd. Containerization helped to streamline the movement of cargo through ports of entry. However, it has seriously complicated the inspection of imported cargo for hitchhiking IAS. Containerization helped to streamline the movement of cargo through ports of entry. However, it has seriously complicated the inspection of imported cargo for hitchhiking IAS. Raw, unprocessed wood, the primary material of choice for use as a cargo packing material, is a high risk vector for spread of numerous types of insect pests (e.g., wood boring insects, and bark beetles. Raw, unprocessed wood, the primary material of choice for use as a cargo packing material, is a high risk vector for spread of numerous types of insect pests (e.g., wood boring insects, and bark beetles. (To be effective in addressing invasive species, you need to know what species are affected by IAS. (To be effective in addressing invasive species, you need to know what species are affected by IAS. Targeted Education – Stevedores, Consignees, Final Users. Targeted Education – Stevedores, Consignees, Final Users.

28 Unit 4 – Lab Exercise. 1. Port of Entry Inspection (e.g., Ship Hull, Ballast Water Sampling, Ship Hold, Dunnage, Aircraft, Break Bulk Cargo in Warehouse, Retrograde Military Vehicles for Soil Contamination and Snails, Container Inspection, Baggage Inspection, etc.). 2. Fill out the Following Port of Entry Inspection and Treatment Record. Date Port of Entry, Country: Inspector: Cargo: Mode of Transport Country of Origin Exporter Pests Detected Treatment Required Notes

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30 Global Invasive Species Programme Cape Town, South Africa


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