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VISIOCONFÉRENCE ORSAY, 15 septembre 2014 INFLUENCE DU CHANGEMENT CLIMATIQUE SUR LA DISTRIBUTION DES ESPÈCES VENIMEUSES M. Goyffon, MNHN, Paris,

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Presentation on theme: "VISIOCONFÉRENCE ORSAY, 15 septembre 2014 INFLUENCE DU CHANGEMENT CLIMATIQUE SUR LA DISTRIBUTION DES ESPÈCES VENIMEUSES M. Goyffon, MNHN, Paris,"— Presentation transcript:

1 VISIOCONFÉRENCE ORSAY, 15 septembre 2014 INFLUENCE DU CHANGEMENT CLIMATIQUE SUR LA DISTRIBUTION DES ESPÈCES VENIMEUSES M. Goyffon, MNHN, Paris,

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5 PROLIFERATIONS SEASONAL OCCASIONAL INVASIVE SPECIES

6 1) SEASONAL PROLIFERATIONS

7 ARTHROPODS Urticant (sting) (Lepidoptera) Vesicant (contact) (Coleoptera)

8 LEPIDOPTERA LEPIDOPTERISM / ERUCISM (urticant)

9 LEPIDOPTERISM (adults) - Less frequent than erucism (larvæ) -Main families : -Saturniidæ : Hemileucinæ : Lonomia, Hylesia, South America -Thaumetopoeidæ : Anaphe, Africa ; Thaumetopoea, Eur., Euproctis, Asia - Lymantriidæ : L. dispar, Eur., North Am.

10 ERUCISM (larvæ) - frequent, -17 families, about 140 genera, Heterocera & some Rhopalocera, -Main families : -Saturniidæ, Hemileucinæ : Hylesia, Lonomia, South America ; -Notodontidæ : Thaumetopoea, Europe ; Anaphe, Africa -Lasiocampidæ : Dendrolimus, Asia ; Streblote, Europe - Nymphalidæ : Morpho sp.

11 Hylesia sp. (Sth Amer.)

12 Anaphe sp. (Africa)

13 Lonomia sp. (Brazil)

14 Thaumetopoea sp. - Main species in Europa : T. processionæ, T. pityocampa -Among urticant Lepidoptera, only these species seem in a phase of territorial expansion [one cycle per annum], - Nuisances concerning also animals (dogs, cats, cattle)

15 Thaumetopoea pityocampa

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19 STAPHYLINIDÆ ( vesicant )

20 STAPHYLINIDÆ (rove beetles) Characteristics - Vesicant insects, ubiquitous (> 600 sp.) - Main genus : Pæderus, toxin known - Contact dermatitis known at least at the beginning of the XXth century - Attracted on evening by light in houses, even in winter in the Mediterranean basin - Maybe important increasing frequency of accidents due to a climate change

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24 PÉDÉRINE -Produced by an endosymbiotic bacteria, genus Pseudomonas, - Chemical synthesis realized, -Principally in females, -Dead insects “active”, -Hand palms insensitive  to rinse, - Insects attracted by electric lights.

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29 SYMPTOMATOLOGY -One or several erythema (then systemic signs possible), -Appearing after one or several insects crushed on skin, -Transport of toxins by hand palms possible, -Three grades : benign, moderate, severe (rarely) with systemic symptoms, - Secondary infection possible

30 OTHER SPECIES (expansions) Snakes -Vipera aspis, H. viridiflavus (Europa, latitude) - Crotalus atrox which replaces C. molossus (North America, USA, altitude)

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32 Hierophis viridiflavus (non venomous) Whip snake

33 H.v.

34 Crotalus atrox

35 Crotalus molossus

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37 2) OCCASIONAL PROLIFERATIONS (not dependent of season) -Cnidae (venomous) - Iuliforms (millipedes, vesicant)

38 CNIDAE : JELLYFISH

39 P. noctiluca

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41 [Sea nettle]

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43 Physalia grounded on a beach (France)

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46 SYMPTOMS, TREATMENT -Contacts painful, marks of contact often persistent, -Avoid rubbings, -Take off the fragments of tentacles (if any) with small tongs, - Analgesic drugs.

47 IULIFORMS -Diplopods : not venomous (as Chilopods, for example), but “vesicant” as some insects. Ex. : Ommatoiolus sp. -Possible huge proliferations in some countries, causes not well known, - Nuisance rather than a health problem.

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50 Anthropic environments (I) Possibility for some venomous species to adapt to various anthropic environments : two examples of snakes (adaptation limited in time and space)

51 Causus sp.

52 Causus maculatus (Africa) -in banana plantations, especially if strawed ground which retains moisture, - Causus maculatus is an African viper which causes severe non-fatal envenomings.

53 Echis ocellatus

54 ECHIS OCELLATUS -Echis ocellatus is a dangerous African viper - It is a consumer of venomous Chilopods (Scolopendra sp.) which are themselves consumers of small arthropods in rubbish piles neglected, during the rain-season. So, serious “domestic” envenomings may appear during this season in some countries of Black Africa.

55 URBAN SCORPIONISM Benign (France) or dangerous (America : Brazil, Argentina, USA) Characteristics (in tropical regions) : - Parthenogenesis (Tityus sp.), -Opportunistic food : cockroaches, -Ecological adaptability, - Currently : only America (N. and S.)

56 Euscorpius flavicaudis (harmless)

57 Adaptation to anthropic environments : urban scorpionism Tityus serrulatus : Brazil (Brasilia) Tityus trivittatus : Argentina (Buenos Aires) Centruroides sculpturatus (Los Angeles, USA), generally in gardens, not inside Common characteristics : parthenogenesis (only Tityus sp.) Main food : cockroaches, various insects

58 Tityus serrulatus (Brazil)

59 Tityus trivitattus (Argentina)

60 Centruroides sp.

61 INVASIVE SPECIES -Hymenoptera (stinging), - Vertebrates : amphibia, snakes, fish (lionfish)

62 -Hornets - Bees -Ants

63 Vespa crabro European hornet

64 Vespa velutina Asian hornet

65 Map in 2012

66 VESPA VELUTINA -Hornet Vespa velutina came probably from China (marine transport), -Rapid invasion of France up to Belgium, -Predator of bees, - Less diurnal than V. crabro, - Some deaths registered in France, even if its venom seems without particularities.

67 Apis sp.

68 Invasive bees -Brazilian hybrids produced 50 yrs ago : Apis mellifera ligustica x A. m. adansoni -Hybrids better adapted to the tropical climate, but more aggressive (“killer bees”) -Invasion of the South America, then Central America, and North America up to Texas and Arizona. Many multiple stings recorded. - No particularities in the composition of hybrid venoms.

69 BEHAVIOR OF THE HYBRID BEES (“killer bees”) -They collect pollens whatever the weather, even if clouds, - In tropical regions, bees are active during the year, not only in Spring-Summer. - When a human is too near the hives, he is attacked on 500 m or more (more than the m for A. mellifera mellifera), with multiple stings.

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71 A.mellifera : swarm

72 INVASIVE ANTS I (7-8 sp.) Commune characteristics : -Polygyny (several queens), unicoloniality (several nests, one colony), -Mating in the nest, -Omnivora, -High aggressiveness, -Rapid mobilization of the populations, -Sudden population explosions, - Not all species venomous.

73 INVASIVE ANTS (II) - Not (or very rarely) a medical problem, but : -Ecological problems, as a nuisance for the natural populations (arthropods, microvertebrates, plants) which are eliminated by the invasive ants. - Also : many damages in houses (electric wire, plastic things).

74 Argentine ant Linepithema humile

75 Yellow foolish ant Anoplolepis gracilipes

76 Little fire ant Wasmannia auropunctata

77 Fire ant Solenopsis invicta

78 INVASIVE SPECIES : OTHER EXAMPLES I) SNAKES : Boiga irregularis Guam island II) AMPHIBIANS : Lithobates catesbeianus (Bullfrog) III) FISH : Pterois sp. (Lionfish)

79 Boiga irregularis

80 INVASIVE SNAKE -One example : Boiga irregularis, introduced possibly by US Army in Guam Island after the World War II -It is an opisthoglyphous snake, i.e. a venomous snake, not dangerous for adults but possibly dangerous for children. - Destroyer of the microendemic vertebrates fauna : rodents, bats, birds, lizards.

81 Lithobates catesbeianus

82 AMPHIBIA -As snakes, the invasions of vertebrate species result from a human introduction, voluntarily or not, sometimes with the idea of the elimination of a “vermin”

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85 CONCLUSIONS -Role of climate changes limited, except in some arthropods (Lepidoptera, Coleoptera), and some vertebrates (snakes) - Role of human factors important concerning invasive venomous species (arthropods but also vertebrates), including some cases of adaptation of venomous species to anthropic environments.


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