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Aquatic Invasive Species and Ballast Water Management Nicole A. Dobroski Marine Invasive Species Program California State Lands Commission.

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Presentation on theme: "Aquatic Invasive Species and Ballast Water Management Nicole A. Dobroski Marine Invasive Species Program California State Lands Commission."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aquatic Invasive Species and Ballast Water Management Nicole A. Dobroski Marine Invasive Species Program California State Lands Commission

2 What are AIS?  Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) are organisms transported by human activities to a region where they did not occur historically and have established reproducing populations in the wild.  Also known as invasive, exotic, alien, introduced, aquatic nuisance species (ANS), nonindigenous species (NIS), non-native

3 Additional Facts  Non-native species are considered the second greatest threat to biodiversity after habitat destruction  Many non-native species are capable of causing significant ecological, economic or human health impacts  In the marine environment, the rate of new introductions has increased exponentially during the last 200 years

4 Example: Chinese Mitten Crab  Eriocheir sinensis  Native to China and Korea, introduced populations in SF Bay  Burrows into earthen levees and undermines levee integrity  Clogs water pumping facilities, $1 million spent in 2000-2001 to remove crabs  Carrier of parasitic lung fluke

5 Example: Overbite Clam  Corbula amurensis  Detected in SF Bay in 1986  Native to Asia  Very high feeding/filtration rate  Decline in copepod species associated with spread of clam, may be associated with decline of Delta smelt

6 How do they get here?  Many mechanisms (vectors) capable of transporting AIS around the world  Aquaculture, live seafood shipments, bait, pet store trade, intentional release  Commercial ships responsible for up to 80% of introductions in coastal habitats Includes ballast water and vessel fouling Includes ballast water and vessel fouling

7 Ballast Water Necessary to maintain the trim and stability of oceangoing vessels

8 Ballast Water and AIS  Species are introduced with ballast water discharge in recipient regions

9 Ballast Water and AIS  Approximately 7000 species transported around the world each day in ballast water of ships  Volume of global trade is increasing = more ballast water (and species) in movement  Speed of global trade is increasing = more species survive transit  Examples of species introduced to SF Bay as a result of ballast water discharge: Palaemon macrodactylus Philine auriformis Tridentiger barbatus

10 Vessel Fouling  Community of organisms that attach or associate with submerged portions of structures  On vessels, highest density in “niche” areas: sea chests, around rudder, dry dock strips

11 Fouling and AIS  Species introduced when organisms fall/drop off structures or spawn (reproduce)

12 How do we manage AIS?  Prevention – Best line of defense, vector regulation/management  Eradication – Costly and often impossible, over $6 million to eradicate Caulerpa (algae) from two small southern CA embayments  Species management once established – restrict local movement, control populations in sensitive habitats if possible

13 International Regulations  International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments.  Adopted by IMO in February 2004  Becomes effective one year after ratification by 30 countries representing 35% of world shipping tonnage.  Establishes performance standards for ballast water discharge.  As of September 2007, 10 countries representing 3.42% of world shipping tonnage have signed convention.

14 Federal Legislation  Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990  National Invasive Species Act of 1996 – required USCG to develop voluntary (and in 2004 mandatory) ballast management guidelines for vessels entering US waters Also – vessel BW management plan, reporting & recordkeeping, safety exemption Also – vessel BW management plan, reporting & recordkeeping, safety exemption  New legislation proposed, nothing has passed to date.

15 California Laws & Regulations  1999 - Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species Act  2003 - Marine Invasive Species Act established the Marine Invasive Species Program  2006 – Coastal Regulations, Coastal Ecosystems Protection Act (required establishment of performance standards)  2007 – Performance Standards Regulations, AB 740 (addressing vessel fouling) recently signed by Governor

16 Ballast Water Management Options in California  Retain all ballast on board  Ballast water exchange  Discharge to an approved shoreside treatment facility (currently no such facilities in CA)  Use of alternative, environmentally sound CSLC or USCG approved method of treatment

17 Retention  Most frequently used management option. In the first half of 2006 almost 85% of vessel arrivals reported retaining all ballast water on board.

18 Theory Behind BW Exchange  Coastal organisms won’t survive in nutrient poor mid-ocean conditions  Mid-ocean water – density of organisms (# organisms/volume water) is less, mid-ocean species not likely to survive in brackish and/or polluted conditions found in most estuaries and port regions  Reduced number organisms + reduced likelihood of survival = reduced chance of invasion Phytoplankton

19 Ballast Water Exchange  Flow through – pump three full volumes of water through ballast tank  Empty-Refill (aka Sequential) – tank emptied once and subsequently refilled with water

20 Exchange Requirements  Vessels entering CA from outside of US EEZ - must exchange at least 200 nm from any shore and in waters at least 2000 meters deep  Exchange ballast water in near coastal waters (outside of 50 nm) if that water was taken on in a port or place within the Pacific Coast Region

21 Exchange Efficiency  Efficiency of exchange varies by vessel type and exchange method  Ranges from 50 – 99%  Sediments often remain regardless of exchange method – important because sediments contain eggs/resting stages for many types of species Inside Golden Bear Ballast Tank

22 Need for Treatment  Exchange is not sufficient to ensure that no species will be released into coastal waters  We don’t know dose-response curve (how many organisms must be released to result in a species introduction)  Only truly protective discharge standard is no species present – cannot reach this standard with any management practice other than ballast water treatment Hyde BW Treatment System

23 Ballast Water Treatment Performance Standards Organism Size Class California 1,2 IMO Regulation D-2 1 Washington Organisms greater than 50 µm in minimum dimension No detectable living organisms < 10 viable organisms per cubic meter Technology to inactivate or remove: 95% zooplankton 99% bacteria and phytoplankton Organisms 10 – 50 µm in minimum dimension < 0.01 living organisms per ml < 10 viable organisms per ml Organisms less than 10 µm in minimum dimension Escherichia coli Intestinal enterococci Toxicogenic Vibrio cholerae (01 & 0139) < 10 3 bacteria/100 ml < 10 4 viruses/100 ml < 126 cfu 3 /100 ml < 33 cfu/100 ml < 1cfu/100 ml or < 1cfu/gram wet weight zoological samples < 250 cfu/100 ml < 100 cfu/100 ml < 1 cfu/100 ml or < 1 cfu/gram wet weight zooplankton samples Ballast Water Capacity of Vessel Standards apply to new vessels in this size class constructed on or after Standards apply to all other vessels in this size class beginning in < 1500 metric tons 20092016 < 1500 – 5000 metric tons 20092014 > 5000 metric tons 20122016

24 How does this apply to you? What can you do?  Educate yourself – seminars, journal articles, news, talk with experts  Be familiar with the law – international, federal, states  Follow Best Management Practices (BMPs)  Get involved – testing programs, demonstration projects  Environmental Stewardship - responsibility for environmental quality shared by all those whose actions affect the environment

25 Questions ? Photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center

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