Presentation on theme: "Aquatic Nuisance Species"— Presentation transcript:
1Aquatic Nuisance Species U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceAquatic Nuisance SpeciesinLake HuronGreat Lakes Fisheries Leadership InstituteSeptember 27, 2003Anjanette BowenUSFWS-Alpena FRO
2U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service OverviewWhat is an Aquatic Nuisance Species?Lake Huron’s Aquatic Nuisance SpeciesDispersal Vectors for ANSStrategies to Combat ANS ProblemsEfforts to Combat ANS in Lake HuronCurrent Research and ControlNew Threats to Lake HuronEfforts Towards PreventionUseful ANS Web Sites
3Lake Huron’s Aquatic Nuisance Species U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceLake Huron’s AquaticNuisance SpeciesWhat is an Aquatic Nuisance Species?An “aquatic nuisance species" is defined as a species that is 1) non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and 2) whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health.
4Lake Huron’s Aquatic Nuisance Species U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceLake Huron’s AquaticNuisance SpeciesFishEurasian ruffeRound gobySea lamprey – Roger BergstedtCrustaceansZebra musselsQuagga musselsSpiny waterfleaRusty crayfishVegetationPurple loosestrifeEurasian watermilfoil
5Eurasian Ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceEurasian RuffeGymnocephalus cernuusMap-USGSPerch familyProlific spawnerNighttime feederEgg feederNative to Eastern EuropeRuffe WATCHcourtesy ofSea Grant andU.S. Fish andWildlife Service.
6U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Eurasian RuffeWalleye and RuffeGlassy eyes of ruffe and walleye (Corpus luteum) which allow these species to feed and see in darknessYellow Perch and RuffeSimilarities in ruffe and perch body shapeDistinction in dorsal fin of ruffe (continuous) and perch (not continuous)Distinction in coloration between perch and ruffe
7Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceRound GobyNeogobius melanostomusBottom dwellerAggressiveProlific spawnerNest guarderEgg feederNative to Eastern EuropeMap-USGSRound Goby WATCH courtesyof Sea Grant and U.S. Fish andWildlife Service.
8Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceQuagga MusselDreissena bugensisZebra MusselDreissena polymorphaPhoto-Myriah RichersonNative to Eastern EuropeRapid colonizers-widespreadWater filtererRemove planktonsProblem for native musselsQuagga prefers deeper waters
9Spiny Waterflea Bythotrephes longimanus U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceRusty CrayfishOrconectes rusticusSpiny WaterfleaBythotrephes longimanusPhoto- Radka Pichlova & Hank VanderploegPhoto-USGSIntimidating to juvenile fishLarge bodyLong spiny tailFeeds on vegetationOrange claw tipsOrange spots on sides of carapace
10Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceEurasian WatermilfoilMyriophyllum spicatumPurple LoosestrifeLythrum salicariaCan mat on water surface3-5 leaves in whorlsShallow waters (<20 ft)Hindrance to navigationand poor fish habitatPurple loosestrife andEurasian watermilfoilWATCH courtesy ofSea Grant and U.S.Fish and WildlifeService.Thick growing plantCrowd native plant and wildlifeControl with herbicide, submergedmats and native Milfoil Weevil
11Dispersal Vectors For ANS U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceDispersal Vectors ForANSIntentional ReleaseAquaculture EscapeWaterway MigrationBallast WaterBait Bucket ReleasePhoto-www.aquarian.comPhoto-NE University and MITPhoto-www.livebaittheater.org
12Strategies to Combat ANS Problems U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceStrategies to Combat ANS ProblemsBallast ControlRegulationEducationResearchMonitoring and Removal (Control)Legislationproposed National Aquatic Invasive Species Act of 2003 (NAISA)National Invasive Species Act of 1996 (NISA)Nonindiginous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990Early Detection – Rapid Response and Development ofan early detection and eradication protocol
13Efforts to Combat ANS in Lake Huron U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceEfforts to Combat ANS in Lake HuronUSFWSNearshore surveillance for early detection of Eurasian ruffe and round goby at shipping ports – 14 ports, St. Marys River to Harbor Beach – bottom trawlingMonitoring of nearshore population dynamics of native and ANS – bottom trawlingRemoval of the Lake Huron population of adult spawning phase Eurasian ruffe – small mesh gillnettingAssist state, federal, and tribal efforts to combat ANSAngler and public education and outreach efforts from Sault Ste. Marie to Harbor BeachTotal Catch
14Efforts to Combat ANS in Lake Huron U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceEfforts to Combat ANS in Lake HuronUSGSOffshore surveillance and population monitoring at 5 locations in the main basin – bottom trawlingOffshore population dynamics of round goby (5 locations) in the main basin and interaction w/ natives – bottom trawlingBenthic sampling – analysis of zebra and quagga mussel dynamicsContact:Jeff SchaefferUSGS, Great LakesScience CenterAnn Arbor, MI
15Efforts to Combat ANS in Lake Huron U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceEfforts to Combat ANS in Lake HuronMDNR/MDEQNear and offshore surveillance during regular fishery index surveys – bottom trawling and gillnettingFunding of ANS projects through the Michigan Great Lakes Protection fund for work with:-U of M study of Diporeia and lake whitefish in Lake Huron – zebra mussel implicationsGIS modeling and mapping of species infestationsTip of the Mitt Watershed Council ANS education and outreachUpdated Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plan in October 2002Assisted in initiation of Michigan ANS Awareness WeekContact:MDEQ, Office of theGreat LakesLansing, MI
16Efforts to Combat ANS in Lake Huron U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceEfforts to Combat ANS in Lake HuronOMNRMulti-year nearshore fish community assessment at 2 sites in each of the Main Basin and Georgian Bay- document round goby expansion – seining, fyke netting, small mesh gillnetting, and trappingExamine creel and angler reports for ANS sightingsConduct surveillance through index fishery assessments – 6 locationsContact:Lloyd MohrOMNR, Lake HuronManagement UnitOwen Sound, Ont.
17Current Research and Control U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceCurrent Research and ControlBallast water treatment options to prevent new introductionsEfforts to prevent zebra mussels from adhering to surfaces – mild electric fieldsRound goby predation on lake trout eggs and fry on natural historical lake trout spawning reefs in Lake HuronRemoval of spawning phase ruffe in Lake HuronExamination of round goby and ruffe population dynamics with native species
18New Threats to Lake Huron? U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceNew Threats to Lake Huron?Northern Snakehead ?FishhookWaterflea?Photo-USGSPhoto- Radka Pichlova & Hank VanderploegPhoto-USFWSAsian Carp ?
19New Threats to Lake Huron? U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceNew Threats to Lake Huron?Bighead CarpHypophthalmichthys nobilisMap-USGSPhoto-USFWS
20New Threats to Lake Huron? U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceNew Threats to Lake Huron?29 lb caughtoff Pinconning9/6/03Photo-Virginia Polytechnic InstituteMap-USGSGrass CarpCtenopharyngodon idella
21New Threats to Lake Huron? U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceNew Threats to Lake Huron?Silver CarpHypophthalmichthys molitrixPhoto-Virginia Polytechnic InstituteMap-USGS
22New Threats to Lake Huron? U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceNew Threats to Lake Huron?Black CarpMylopharyngodon piceusFirst wildCapture3/23/03ILPhoto-Virginia TechPhoto-L.G. Nico, USGSMap-USGSConsumes vegetation
23New Threats to Lake Huron? U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceNew Threats to Lake Huron?Photo-USGSSnakeheadChanna argusVoracious predatorBreathe air 7-10 daysNo natural predatorsCaptured inWI on 9/4/03WIMap-USGSPhoto-USGS
24New Threats to Lake Huron? U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceNew Threats to Lake Huron?Water Flea Daphnia lumholtziPhoto-Tom FerroMap-USGS
25New Threats to Lake Huron? U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceNew Threats to Lake Huron?Fishhook Waterflea Cercopagis pengoiPhoto- Radka Pichlova & Hank VanderploegMap-USGS
26Efforts Toward Prevention U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceEfforts Toward PreventionEducation is Key!LegislationResearchIn General -Eradication impossible in large open systemsIntroductions are difficult to controlPrevention is the best measureAwareness is necessary for successCooperation is importantControl efforts can be expensive and planning lengthy
27U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Useful ANS Web SitesFederal Invasive Species SiteGreat Lakes Panel on ANSGreat Lakes Fishery Commission on Exotic SpeciesCoast GuardBallast Water ManagementUSGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Aquatic Nuisance Species Task ForceSea Grant Non-indigenous Species SiteMDNR ANS Control