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And How It Effects You. What Happens When You Drink  When you take a drink, about 20% of the alcohol is absorbed in your stomach; the remaining 80% is.

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Presentation on theme: "And How It Effects You. What Happens When You Drink  When you take a drink, about 20% of the alcohol is absorbed in your stomach; the remaining 80% is."— Presentation transcript:

1 And How It Effects You

2 What Happens When You Drink  When you take a drink, about 20% of the alcohol is absorbed in your stomach; the remaining 80% is absorbed in your small intestine.  How quickly the alcohol is absorbed depends upon the concentration of the alcohol in the drink and whether you've just eaten a big meal.  A full stomach will slow down alcohol absorption.

3 What Happens When You Drink  After the alcohol is absorbed, it enters your bloodstream and is carried throughout your body.  As the alcohol acts upon the body, the body is simultaneously working to remove it.  The kidneys and lungs remove about 10% of the alcohol in the urine and the breath.  The liver breaks down the rest of the alcohol into acetic acid.

4 What Happens When You Drink  After just a few drinks, the physical effects of alcohol become apparent.  These effects are related to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC).  The BAC goes up when the body is taking in alcohol faster than it can release it.

5 The Effects of Alcohol  If you have seen someone who has had too much to drink, you've probably noticed definite changes in that person's performance and behavior.  The body responds to alcohol in stages, which correspond to an increase in BAC (Body Alcohol Concentration)

6 Euphoria : (BAC = 0.03 to 0.12%)  More self-confident or daring.  Attention span shortens.  Look flushed.  Judgment is not as good - may say the first thought that comes to mind, rather than an appropriate comment for the given situation.  Have trouble with fine movements, such as writing or signing their name.

7 Excitement : (BAC = 0.09 to 0.25%)  Become sleepy.  Have trouble understanding or remembering things (even recent events).  Do not react to situations as quickly (if you spill a drink you may just stare at it).  Body movements are uncoordinated.  Begin to lose your balance easily.  Vision becomes blurry.  May have trouble sensing things (hearing, tasting, feeling, etc.).

8 Confusion : (BAC = 0.18 to 0.30%)  Confused -- might not know where you are or what you are doing.  Dizzy and may stagger.  May be highly emotional - aggressive, withdrawn or overly affectionate.  Cannot see clearly.  Sleepy.  Slurred speech.  Uncoordinated movements (trouble catching an object thrown to you).  May not feel pain as readily as a sober person.

9 Stupor : (BAC = 0.25 to 0.40%)  Can barely move at all.  Cannot respond to stimuli.  Cannot stand or walk.  May vomit.  May lapse in and out of consciousness.

10 Coma : (BAC = 0.35 to 0.50%)  Unconscious.  Reflexes are depressed (i.e. pupils do not respond appropriately to changes in light).  Feel cool (lower-than-normal body temperature).  Breathing is slower and more shallow.  Heart rate may slow.  May die.

11 BAC = More than 0.50%

12 Alcohol & Your Brain  So, why IS the drinking age in the United States 21??  There actually is a reason for it….  The human brain doesn't stop developing at adolescence, but continues well into our 20’s  Sooooo, let’s ingest mass quantities of a substance which can be harmful to many areas of our brain 

13 Alcohol & Your Brain  Alcohol affects brain chemistry by altering levels of neurotransmitters.  Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit the signals throughout the body that control thought processes, behavior and emotion.  Neurotransmitters are either excitatory, meaning that they stimulate brain electrical activity, or inhibitory, meaning that they decrease brain electrical activity.

14 Alcohol & Your Brain  Alcohol increases the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the brain.  GABA causes the sluggish movements and slurred speech that often occur in alcoholics.  At the same time, alcohol inhibits the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate.  Suppressing this stimulant results in a similar type of physiological slowdown.

15 Alcohol & Your Brain  In addition to increasing the GABA and decreasing the glutamate in the brain, alcohol increases the amount of the chemical dopamine in the brain's reward center  This creates the feeling of pleasure that occurs when someone takes a drink.

16 Alcohol & Your Brain - Areas Cerebral cortex:  In this region, where thought processing and consciousness are centered, alcohol depresses the behavioral inhibitory centers, making the person less inhibited  It slows down the processing of information from the eyes, ears, mouth and other senses; and it inhibits the thought processes, making it difficult to think clearly.

17 Alcohol & Your Brain - Areas Cerebellum:  Alcohol affects this center of movement and balance, resulting in the staggering, off-balance swagger we associate with the so-called "falling-down drunk."

18 Alcohol & Your Brain - Areas Hypothalamus and Pituitary:  The hypothalamus and pituitary coordinate automatic brain functions and hormone release.  Alcohol depresses nerve centers in the hypothalamus that control sexual arousal and performance.  Although sexual urge may increase, sexual performance decreases.


20 Alcohol & Your Brain - Areas Medulla:  This area of the brain handles such automatic functions as breathing, consciousness and body temperature.  By acting on the medulla, alcohol induces sleepiness.  It can also slow breathing and lower body temperature, which can be life threatening.

21 Alcohol & The Your Body  Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol can seriously harm your health, damaging the liver, kidneys, heart, brain and central nervous system.  We already discussed long-term damage to the brain.  Over time, alcohol can inflict serious damage on other body parts as well.

22 Alcohol & The Your Body Liver:  The liver is particularly vulnerable to the effects of alcohol because it is the organ in which alcohol and other toxins are metabolized (broken down into less harmful substances to be removed from the body).  Drinking over a long period of time can lead to alcoholic hepatitis, or inflammation of the liver.

23 Alcohol & The Your Body Liver:  Up to 70 percent of people with alcoholic hepatitis develop cirrhosis.  With this condition, healthy liver tissue is replaced by scar tissue, which eventually renders the liver unable to function.

24 Alcohol & The Your Body Liver:

25 Alcohol & The Your Body Stomach:  Alcohol irritates the lining of the stomach and intestines, causing vomiting, nausea and eventually ulcers.

26 Alcohol & The Your Body Pancreas:  The pancreas releases the hormones insulin and glucagon, which regulate the way food is broken down and used for energy by the body.  Long-term drinking can lead to inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis).

27 Alcohol & The Your Body Cancer:  Research indicates that long-term drinking increases the risk of cancers of the mouth, throat, larynx and esophagus (windpipe and food-tube).

28 What Causes a Hangover ?

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