Habitat design Ponds + + floating rafts and islands + + variety of depths + + maximum depth 3m + + spits + + gently sloping/shelving sides
Habitat design Wetlands + + ensure base flow + + ensure storage capacity + + variety of depths + + inclusion of pools
Colonisation of SUDS + Self-colonisation best + Planting-up –safety –water treatment –protection of basin –landscape value
Sources of plants for SUDS + avoid taking from the wild + river/canal management programmes + SUDS + specialist supplier of native species
Suitability of plants for SUDS + geology, sediment, water type + pollutant loading + water/sediment pollutant concentration + water level changes
Introduced versus native plants + Native plants form habitat associations with other natives. + Native plants support native fauna. + Aliens may exhibit inferior growth rates. + Aliens may breed with native species. + Aliens may spread to semi-natural waters.
Diversity + Retention ponds –3 to 6 species of macrophyte + Calais Wood Marsh Pond –40 species of invertebrate –25 species of macrophyte
Naturalness + Native species outwith range –Sagittaria sagittifolia –Ludwigia palustris + Cultivars + Alien species –Crassula helmsii –Elodea nuttallii –Lagarosiphon major
Rarity + No nationally scarce or Red List species + Calais Wood Marsh, Halbeath Pond, Pond 5 –>3 locally uncommon species
Studies of SUDS ponds elsewhere + Water voles (Motorola, Bathgate) + Frogs and newts (Freeport, West Calder) + Newt larvae (Houston Caw Burn) + Uncommon cased-caddis fly (West Calder) + Limosella aquatica (Clyde Valley)
Summary statement Despite the artificial nature of SUDS ponds, through consideration of design, location, sourcing of plants and maintenance procedures, well in advance of the development, ecological potential can be maximised.